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This section covers:

1. Chapters 25-31 The directions for building of the Sanctuary
2. Chapters 32-34 Detail Israel’s apostasy with the Golden Calf 
3. Chapters 35-40 Describe the construction of the Sanctuary

With the exception of chapters 32-34,  which tell the story of the Golden Calf,  the remainder of the Book of Exodus is concerned with the construction of the Sanctuary.

Israel had been redeemed from bondage,  and God had proclaimed His laws unto them at Sinai. 
The communion of God with Moses and Israel was not,  however,  to cease with Israel’s departure from Sinai.  Moses is bidden to erect a Sanctuary that shall be a visible emblem to the people that God dwells among them.

In form, the Sanctuary was a portable structure,  as it was to accompany the Israelites on their wanderings.  It was primarily a tent,  with a wooden frame-work to give it greater stability and security than ordinary tent-poles could give.  The entire Sanctuary consisted of three parts:

1. Outer Court There was the outer Court, enclosed by curtains supported on pillars.  It was oblong in shape,  100 cubits by 50,  and the entrance was on the eastern side.
Within the Court facing the entrance,  was the  Altar of Sacrifice; and,  behind it, towards the West,  was the Laver for the Priests.
2. Holy Place In the western portion of the Court was the Sanctuary proper,  the Tabernacle. 
This was divided by a  ‘Veil’,  or hanging curtain, into two chambers. 
The first of these which only the priests might enter, was the Holy Place,  containing the Table,  the Candlestick and the Altar of Incense. 
3. Holy of Holies The second of the chambers was called the Holy of Holies,  and contained the Ark of the Covenant. 
This was entered once a year by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement. Precious metals and finely woven colored materials were employed in its construction.  The nearer an object was to the Holy of Holies,  the rarer and costlier the material;  the objects further off being made of bronze and ordinary woven cloths.  The northern,  western and southern sides of the Tabernacle were a wooden framework;  the eastern side,  or the front,  consisted of a screen.

The entire Tabernacle was covered by a tent, and over the tent there were further coverings.

2,000 Cubits show the 2,000  years from Jesus birth until now,  
1,000 Cubits show the Millennial reign of Christ. (10 x 20 x 10 Holy Place 10 x 10 x 10 Holy of Holies).   
A possible theory.

24:9-32:14     The fourth ascent of Moses - the making of the Tabernacle

24:9-11 The worship of the Seventy Elders
24:12-14 The Tables promised
24:15-18 The six days and the seventh
25:1-9 Materials
25:10-27:21 Furniture THE TABERNACLE
28:1-29:46 Priests
30:1-11 Furniture
30:12-16 Worshippers
30:17-38 Furniture
31:1-6 Craftsmen
31:7-11 Furniture
31:12-17 The six days and the seventh
31:18 The Tables given
32:1-14 The idolatry of the People


Gold, Silver, Brass
Notice no iron is in the tabernacle. 
Brass is a mixture of copper and zinc which was unknown then.  So this was probably copper,  or bronze which is a mixture of copper and tin.


After the Pattern
See Hebrews 8:5.  Not a plan,  but a model. 
The reality is in heaven.  So with the temple,  later. I Chron. 28:11-19. 
With the utmost exactness certain representative measurements given.  Nine others,  vital to construction,  but not for significance,  not given.  Probably these Divine silences were to make any unauthorized structures impossible. These nine were:

1. Thickness of the sides and bottom of the Ark
2. Thickness of the mercy seat and the details of the cherubim
3. Thickness of the table
4. The dimensions of the lampstand
5. The thickness of the boards
6. The middle-bar dimensions
7. The size of the rams’ skins
8. The size of the badgers’ skins
9. All the thicknesses of the brazen altar (the third dimension)


And they shall make
The Shadow of the Almighty
(His assistant)

From Flavius Josephus - on the Tabernacle

Now when all things were prepared,  the gold,  and the silver,  and the brass,  and what was woven,  Moses,  when he had appointed beforehand that there should be a festival,  and that sacrifices should be offered according to every one’s ability,  reared up the tabernacle;   and when he had measured the open court,  fifty cubits broad and a hundred long,  he set up brazen pillars,  five cubits high,  twenty on each of the longer sides,  and ten pillars for the breadth behind;  every one of the pillars also had a ring.

"Their chapters were of silver,  but their bases were of brass: they resembled the sharp ends of spears,  and were of brass,  fixed into the ground.  Cords were also put through the rings,  and were tied at their further ends to brass nails of a cubit long,  which,  at every pillar,  were driven into the floor,  and would keep the tabernacle from being shaken by the violence of winds;  but a curtain of fine soft linen went round all the pillars,  and hung down in a flowing and loose manner from their chapters,  and enclosed the whole space,  and seemed not at all unlike to a wall about it.

"And this was the structure of three of the sides of this enclosure;  but as for the fourth side,  which was fifty cubits in extent,  and was the front of the whole,  twenty cubits of it were for the opening of the gates,  wherein stood two pillars on each side,  after the resemblance of open gates.  These were made wholly of silver,  and polished,  and all over,  excepting the bases which were of brass.

"Now on each side of the gates there stood three pillars,  which were inserted into the concave bases of the gates,  and were suited to them;  and round them was drawn a curtain of fine linen;  but to the gates themselves,  which were twenty cubits in extent,  and five in height,  the curtain was composed of purple,  and scarlet,  and blue,  and fine linen,  and embroidered with many and divers sorts of figures,  excepting the figures of animals.

As to the tabernacle itself,  Moses place it in the middle of that court,  with its front to the east,  that,  when the sun arose,  it might send its first rays upon it.  Its length,  when it was set up,  was thirty cubits,  and its breadth was twelve [ten] cubits.  The one of its walls was on the south,  and the other was exposed to the north,  and on the back part of it remained the west.

"It was necessary that its height should be equal to its breadth,  [ten cubits].  There were also pillars made of wood,  twenty on each side;  they were wrought into a quadrangular figure,  in breadth a cubit and a half,  but the thickness was four fingers:  they had thin plates of gold affixed to them on both sides,  inwardly and outwardly:  they had each of them two tenons (a projecting member in a piece of wood or other material for insertion into a mortise to make a joint) belonging to them,  inserted into their bases,  and these were of silver,  in each of which bases there was a socket to receive the tenon;  but the pillars on the west wall were six.

"Now all these tenons and sockets accurately fitted one another,  inasmuch that the joints were invisible,  and both seemed to be one entire and united wall.  It was also covered with gold,  both within and without.  The number of pillars was equal on the opposite sides,  and there were on each part twenty,  and every one of them had the third part of a span in thickness;  so that the number of thirty cubits were fully made up between them;  but as to the wall behind,  where the six pillars made up together only nine cubits,  they made two other pillars,  and cut them out of one cubit,  which they placed in the corners,  and made them equally fine with the other.

"Now every one of the pillars had rings of gold affixed to their fronts outward,  as if they had taken root in the pillars,  and stood one row over against another round about,  through which were inserted bars gift over with gold,  each of them five cubits long,  and these bound together the pillars,  the head of one bar running into another,  after the nature of one tenon inserted into another;  but for the wall behind,  there was but one row of bars that went through all the pillars,  into which row ran the ends of the bars on each side of the longer walls;  the male with its female being so fastened in their joints,  that they held the whole firmly together;  and for this reason was all this joined so fast together,  that the tabernacle might not be shaken,  either by the winds,  or by any other means,  but that it might preserve itself quiet and immovable continually.

As for the inside,  Moses parted its length into three partitions.  At the distance of ten cubits from the most secret end,  Moses placed four pillars,  the workmanship of which was the very same with that of the rest;  and they stood upon the like bases with them,  each a small matter distant from his fellow. 

"Now the room within those pillars was the most holy place;  but the rest of the room was the tabernacle,  which was open for the priests.  However,  this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the system of the world:  for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars,  to which the priests were not admitted,  is as it were a Heaven peculiar to God.

"The space of the twenty cubits,  is,  as it were,  sea and land,  on which men live,  and so this part is peculiar to the priests only:  but at the front,  where the entrance was made,  they placed pillars of gold,  that stood on bases of brass,  in number seven.

"Then they spread over the tabernacle veils of fine linen and purple,  and blue,  and scarlet colors,  embroidered.  The first veil was ten cubits every way,  and this they spread over the pillars which parted the temple,  and kept the most holy place concealed within;  and this veil was that which made this part not visible to any.

"Now the whole temple was called The Holy Place;  but that part which was within the four pillars,  and to which none were admitted,  was called The Holy of Holies.  This veil was very ornamental,  and embroidered with all sorts of flowers which the earth produces;  and there were interwoven into it all sorts of variety that might be an ornament, excepting the forms of animals.

"And so the veil there was which covered the five pillars that were at the entrance.  It was like the former in its magnitude,  and texture,  and color;  and at the corner of every pillar a ring retained it from the top downwards half the depth of the pillars,  the other half affording an entrance for the priests,  who crept under it.

"Over this there was a veil of linen,  of the same largeness with the former: it was to be drawn this way or that way by cords,  the rings of which,  fixed to the texture of the veil,  and to the cords also,  were subservient to the drawing and undrawing of the veil, and to the fastening it at the corner,  that then it might be no hindrance to the view of the sanctuary,   especially on solemn days;  but that on other days,  and especially when the weather was inclined to snow,  it might be expanded,  and afford a covering to the veil of divers colors;  whence that custom of ours is derived,  of having a fine linen veil,  after the temple has been built,  to be drawn over the entrances.

"The ten other curtains were four cubits in breadth,  and twenty-eight in length;  and had golden clasps,  in order to join the one curtain to the other,  which was done so exactly that they seemed to be one entire curtain.  These were spread over the temple,  and covered all the top and parts of the walls,  on the sides and behind,  so far as within one cubit of the ground.

"There were other curtains of the same breadth with these,  but one more in number,  and longer,  for they were thirty cubits long;  but these were woven with hair,  with the like subtlety as those of wool were made,  and were extended loosely down to the ground,  appearing like a triangular front and elevation at the gates,  the eleventh curtain being used for this very purpose.

"There were also other curtains made of skins above these,  which afforded covering and protection to those that were woven,  both in hot weather,  and when it rained;  and great was the surprise of those who viewed these curtains at a distance,  for they seemed not at all to differ from the color of the sky;  but hose that were made of hair and of skins,  reached down in the same manner as did the veil at the gates,  and kept off the heat of the sun,  and what injury the rains might do;  and after this manner was the tabernacle reared."

(Flavius Josephus Antiquities of the Jews book III Pages 71-73)

The study of the Tabernacle has always been one of my favorite studies and if I seem long winded please forgive me,  and I hope that you to will enjoy this study as I do.   (Paul the learner)

Flavius Josephus was from a Priestly family and had access to books and traditions in 70 AD that we do not have,  and as far as I know this is the oldest information concerning the make up of the Tabernacle.

Practically all commentators are agreed that the sanctuary was a symbol;  and its purpose, to impress the children of men with spiritual teachings
What,  however,  were the spiritual teachings which the Tabernacle symbolized?  
This question offered full scope to the ingenuity of mystic interpreters,  ancient and modern,  Jewish and non-Jewish,  who declared the Sanctuary to be an epitome of that which is presented on a larger scale in the Universe as a whole,  and an emblem of Religions profoundest teachings on Life and Eternity.
In other words,  it has a deeper meaning but what??? 
They need the Key which is Jesus Christ who said that the Scriptures testified of Him.



The Ark of the Covenant      Exodus 25:10-22

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Exod 25:10-22
(10) And they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.
(11) And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about.
(12) And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it.
(13) And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.
(14) And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them.
(15) The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be taken from it.
(16) And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.
(17) And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.
(18) And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat.
(19) And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof.
(20) And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.
(21) And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.
(22) And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.

From Josephus:
‘There was also an ark made,  sacred to God,  of wood that was naturally strong,  and could not be corrupted.  This was called Eron,  in our own language.  Its construction was thus Its length was five spans,  but its breadth and height was each of them three spans.  It was covered all over with gold,  both within and without,  so that the wooden part was not seen.  It had also a cover united to it,  by golden hinges,  after a wonderful manner;  which cover was every way evenly fitted to it,  and had no eminencies to hinder its exact conjunction.  There were also two golden rings belonging to each of the longer boards,  and passing through the entire wood, and through them gilt bars passed along each board, that it might thereby be moved and carried about,  as occasion should require;  for it was not drawn in a cart by beasts of burden,  but borne on the shoulders of the priests.  Upon this its cover were two images,  which the Hebrews call cherubims;  they are flying creatures but their form is not like to that of any of the creatures which men have seen,  though Moses said he had seen such beings near the throne of God.  In this ark he put the two tables whereon the ten commandments were written,  five upon each table,  and two and a half upon each side of them;  and this ark he placed in the most holy place. 
(Antiquities of the Jews book III Page 73 Josephus)


Thou shalt make the Ark of the covenant of incorruptible wood-two cubits and a half,  the length,  and a cubit and a half,  the breadth,  and a cubit and a half,  the height.  And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold.  Within and without thou shalt overlay it.  And thou shalt make for it a rim of gold welded and waved around.  And thou shalt beat out for it four rings of gold and fasten them to the four corners,  two rings on one side and two rings on the other side.  And thou shalt make staves of incorruptible wood and overlay them with gold.”

They shall make an ark of acacia wood,  two and a half cubits long,  a cubit and a half wide,  and a cubit and a half high.  Overlay it with pure gold-overlay it inside and out - and make upon it a gold molding round about.  Cast four gold rings for it,  to be attached to its four feet,  two rings on one of its side walls and two on the other.  Make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold;”

And they shall make an Ark of sitta wood;  two cubits and a half its length,  and a cubit and a half its breadth,  and a cubit and a half its height.  And thou shalt cover it with pure gold within and without,  and thou shalt make a crown of gold upon it round about.  And thou shalt cast for it four rings of gold,  and set them upon its four corners,  two rings upon one side of it,  and two rings upon its other side.  And thou shalt make staves of sittin woods,  and cover them with gold,”

And they shall make an ark of shittim wood,  two and a half cubits long,  and a cubit and a half broad, and a cubit and a half high.  And you shall overlay it with pure gold,  without and within shall you overlay it,  and shall make upon it a crown of gold round about.  And you shall cast four rings of gold for it,  and put them in the four corners thereof;  and twos rings on the one side of it,  and two rings on the other side of it.  And you shall make poles of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.”

What I have done here,  is to show you all of the information on the subject of the Ark of the Covenant from the most ancient sources available as far as I know. 

The ark of the covenant and the brazen altar present,  as it were,  two extremes.

The former (the brazen altar)  was the throne of God established in “Justice and Judgment
The latter (the Ark) was the place of approach for the sinner were “Mercy and Truth” 
went before the face of God.

Man,  in himself,  dared not to approach the ark to meet God. for  “THE WAY INTO THE HOLIEST OF ALL WAS NOT YET MADE MANIFEST” (Hebrews 9:8);  but God could approach the alter of brass,  to meet man as a sinner. “Justice and Judgment” could not admit the sinner into the presence of God, 
but “Mercy and Truth” could bring God to man.

In Jesus Christ,  God has come down,  in perfect grace,  to the sinner; 
in Jesus,  the sinner is brought up,  in perfect righteousness,  to God. 

All the way from the Ark to the Brazen altar was marked with the footprints of love,  
and all the way from the brazen altar to the ark was sprinkled with the blood of atonement.

Note verse 16  “And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.” 
This is a break in the description of the Ark of the Covenant,  because this was not just a golden box to house the Law and latter on Aaron’s rod and pot of manna but it was also used for atonement.


And thou shalt make a propitiatory-a lid of pure gold, two cubits and a half, the length; and a cubit and a half, the breadth. Ands thou shalt make two cherubs of turned gold, and place them at the two sides of the propitiatory. They shall be made, one cherub at one side, and the other cherub at the other side of the propitiatory. Thou shalt make the two cherubs at the two sides; and the cherubs shall have their wings stretched forth above and shall overshadow the propitiatory with their wings; and their faces shall be towards each other. The faces of the cherubs shall be towards the propitiatory. And thou shalt put the propitiatory upon the ark;”

You shall make a cover of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and a cubit and a half wide. Make two cherubim of gold-make them of hammered work-at the two ends of the cover. Make one cherub at one end and the other cherub at the other end; of one piece with the cover shall you make the cherubim at its two ends. The cherubim shall have their wings spread our above, shielding the cover with their wings. They shall confront each other, the faces of the cherubim being turned toward the cover. Then place the cover on top of the ark,”

And thou shalt make a Propitiatory of pure gold; two cubits and a half its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth. And thou shalt make two Kerubin of gold, beaten (ductile) shalt thou make them, on the two sides of the propitiatory. And thou shalt make one keruba on this side and one keruba on that side of the propitiatory; thou shalt make the kerubin on its two sides. And the kerubin shall have their wings out-spreading above, overshadowing the propitiatory with their wings; and their faces shall be opposite one to another, towards the propitiatory shall be the faces of the kerubin. And thou shalt set the propitiatory upon the Ark over above,”

And you shall make a mercy seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long, and a cubit and a half broad. And you shall make two cherubim of gold, of cast work shall you make them, on the two sides of the mercy seat. And make one cherub on the one side, and the other cherub on the other side of the mercy seat; thus you shall make two cherubim on the two sides thereof. And the cherubim shall spread forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubim be. And you shall put the mercy seat on top of the ark; “

And again God states  “…and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.” Ex. 25:21


It was called:

English The Ark  
Hebrew Aron  
Chaldee Arona  
termed also Aron Ha Eduth “the Ark of the Testimony”
and Aron Ha Berith “the Ark of the Covenant”

(See Hebrews 9:4).

Its purpose and location:

The ark of the covenant occupies the leading place in the Divine communications to Moses.
Its position in the tabernacle in the wilderness was most marked.
Shut in within the vail, in the holiest of all, it formed the base of Jehovah’s throne
Its very name conveys to the mind its import.
An ark, so far as the Word instructs us, is designed to preserve intact whatever is put therein.

On the basis of I Kings 8:9 and 2 Chronicles 5:10,  it is usually considered that the ark was used as a repository for nothing except the two tables of the Law. However the pot of manna and Aaron’s rod were kept beside the tables in the holy of Holies.  (See Exodus 16:34)

Its description:

It was an oblong coffer,  or chest
Made of acacia wood
Plated with gold within and without
With an exterior border round the top, of pure gold

The Mercy Seat

"Make an atonement cover of pure gold"  (NIV)

In some commentaries and books on the Jewish ritual the mercy-seat is described as being “the lid of the ark”;  but that is a mistake.  The ark had its own lid, of acacia wood plated with gold;  but in the Divine directory, (Exodus 25:17)  the mercy-seat is spoken of as an object distinct from the ark, and formed of gold only.  
The lid covered the ark,  but the mercy-seat covered the lid; verse 21 of Exodus 25 says, “Thou shalt put the mercy-seat,”  (Hebrew `al- haa'aaron,)  “upon the ark above.”

So,  on the day of atonement,  the high priest is directed to sprinkle the blood,  not on the surface of the lid of the ark, but upon the front of the mercy-seat toward the east.  In size,  it was precisely of the same length and breadth as the ark,  so as to fit within the rim which surrounded the lid,  and,  according to the Talmud, (Succah 5,) was a hand-breadth in thickness. 

The name by which it is commonly designated is

Hebrew hakaporet used only of the cover of the sacred Ark
Chaldee   kappurtha  
LXX   "the propitiatory"  

The Hebrew name comes from kaphar,  which means “to cover;”
In Pihel, “to atone for,” and “to forgive.”
In the Hebrew Bible forgiveness is called “the covering of sin
The mercy-seat is the place of meeting between a reconciled God and redeemed man.
(Exodus 25:22; Hebrews 4:16; Numbers 7:89).

Two Cherubim

United with, and fabricated of the same massive gold as the mercy-seat,  were two symbolical figures called kerubim  (Chaldee, kerubaia);  one at each end,  standing in a bending attitude, as if looking into the ark. Everything relating to these objects is veiled in mystery.  No intimation is given about their forms or lineaments, except that their wings overspread the mercy-seat.

In the more graphic descriptions of the Cherubim as seen by Ezekiel the Prophet in (Ezekiel 1 and 10)
and by John in (Revelation 4);  they are represented with the four faces of the ox, the lion, the eagle, and the man ; but from Exodus 25:20 it may be inferred that those upon the ark had only the human visage; which seems to authorize the idea of Eben Ezra (Jewish teacher), that they had the appearance of “winged men.”

Its Size:

1. Length Two cubits and a half 3 feet  9 inches
2. Breadth One cubit and a half 2 feet  3 inches
3. Height One cubit and a half 2 feet  3 inches
4. Thickness Not given  

Significance in Types

Gold A type of Deity - Godliness
Shittim (Acacia) wood A type of Consecrated humanity

Significance To Israel

1. A place to meet God “And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from 
above the mercy seat.” Exodus 25:22
2. A place of Atonement “…make an atonement for the children of Israel for all their sins once a year” Leviticus 16:34
3. A place of safety “…in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.”
Exodus 25:21

Significance Concerning Jesus who is called Christ

“Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.” John 5:39

1. Made of Acacia (Shittim) Wood
Showing the  “consecrated humanity” of Jesus,  who became the actual fulfillment of the type in that He became the Ark of our Covenant.
2. A crown of pure gold round about
Symbolized Jesus Kingship, John 19:19.
The crown of gold held the two parts together and kept them in place.
He is now crowned with glory and honor, even as He was before the world began, and it is He that holds all things together.
3. The word “Ark”
In the Hebrew language it means “Coffin”.
When Jesus was born He was wrapped in “swaddling clothes” or grave clothes.
Jesus was born to die, in our stead.
John 12:27. “but for this cause came I unto this hour.”
4. The ark was God’s throne among His people
I Samuel 8:4-7, I Timothy 6:14,15.
This ark, being made of a 3-fold construction, and having the crown, typifies Jesus during His ministry of 3 ½ years.
5. According to Matthew 5:17 Jesus came to fulfill the law once and for all.
Also in the ark was Aaron’s rod that budded so from a dead stick came forth life.
John 1:4 states, “In him was life;” from his death came forth life and much fruit.
Also in the ark there was a pot of manna.
John 6:32,33 Jesus states, “Verily, verily, I say unto you Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world”.
6. The Staves and Rings
They were to hold the ark as it was carried.
They were not to be taken out, and they teach us that both the First Covenant and the New Covenant carry the Word of the Lord.
It also teaches us that Jesus Christ is with His people always. Hebrew 3:5


The ark rested in the midst of the Holy of Holies
Comparing with the stature of Christ, it occupies the place of the head.
See Matthew 18:20; John 20:19,21; Revelation 5:6.
8. The Mercy Seat
Or Propitiatory as the LXX states is completely covering the Ark of the Covenant.
An open ark would signify a place of Judgment and Justice.
The mercy seat was to be of pure gold,  typifying that the mercy and grace of God did not originate in the flesh that He had prepared for His Son,  but in the Pure Deity and heart of God before the foundation of the world.
9. The mercy seat and the two cherubims were made in one piece.
Here no wood is used,  revealing that NOW there is no natural humanity at all,  but with His Glorified Body,  being lifted up in resurrection and ascension into Heaven were He sits at the right hand of the Father, upon that blood-sprinkled mercy seat,  making intercession for us.
See Hebrews 7:25; 9:5; Leviticus 16:14.

The Significance concerning the Church
Which is the Body of Christ

1. Only the purest and most precious metal was used in connection with the Holy of Holies.
The Ark was overlaid with gold inside, where it was not visible to the eye,
as well as outside where it was visible; 
to teach us that man must be as pure in mind and heart as he appears pure in outward manner and bearing.
Especially is it the duty of a Scholar, continue the Rabbis, to be inwardly what he pretends to be outwardly.
2. The Ark
An ark carried Noah and his family, together with all the orders of creation, in safety over the billows 
of judgment which covered the earth: This was the Largest Ark.
An ark, at the opening of this book, was faith’s vessel for preserving “a proper child” from the waters of death. This was the Smallest Ark.
When, therefore, we read of  “the Ark of the Covenant,” we are led to believe that it was designed of God to preserve His covenant unbroken in the midst of an erring people.
In it,  as we know,  the second set of tables were deposited.
As to the first set,  they were broken in pieces beneath the mount,  showing that man’s covenant was wholly abolished-that his work could never,  by any possibility,  form the basis of God’s throne of government. This is the Holiest Ark of them all.
3. The wings of the Cherubim
The wings of the Cherubim would thus veil the sight of the mercy-seat from the eyes of the High Priest when he entered the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement;  and teach that no human being,  even one who penetrated into the Holy of Holies,  could attain to a full comprehension of God.
(Rabbi Hertz. )
4. The two Cherubim were to guard the holiness and righteousness of God.
They also guarded the tree of life  (I Samuel 6:19).  
Even the mercy seat without the blood wouldn’t give man access to the Holy Place.\
5. The ark of the covenant was to accompany the people in all their wanderings.
It never rested while they were traveling or a conflicting host;  it went before them into the midst of Jordan.  No power of the enemy could stand before that which was the well-known expression of the Divine presence and power.
It went ahead of them for Guidance Numbers 10:33; John 10:4
It went ahead of them to Open the Way Joshua 6:6
It went ahead of them for Victory Joshua 6:6; I Samuel 4
6. Its final resting place
The last notice which the Bible affords us of  “The Ark of the Covenant,” - a notice which carries us 
forward to a time when human folly and sin shall no more disturb the resting-place of that ark,  and 
when neither a curtained tent nor yet a temple made with hands shall contain it.
“Ands the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in His temple The Ark of His Covenant:”   (Revelation 11:15-19; Exodus 25:9).


The staves shall not be taken from it.
Because it should ever be considered as in readiness to be removed, God not having told them at what hour he should command them to strike their tents.  If the staves were never to be taken out, how can it be said, as in Numbers 4:6,  that when the camp would set forward,  they should put in the staves thereof,  which appears to be contrary to what is here said in Exodus 25:15.

The key to the answer to this problem lies in the Hebrew word rendered  “put in,”  it also signifies  “dispose,” and probably refers here to their insertion through the openings in the coverings made for receiving them,  to preserve them from touch of the carriers as well as from the influence of the weather.
In the Targum of Onkelos this Scripture reads,  “Having inset its staves.”
And in the Masoretic Text  it reads  “They shall lay a covering of dolphin skin over it and spread a cloth of pure blue on top; and they shall put its poles in place.”  Numbers 4:6


Looking at the Ark and Mercy-Seat together, we may see in them a striking figure of Jesus Christ in His Person and work. He having, in His life, fulfilled the law, became, through death, a propitiation (or Propitiatory-Mercy-Seat) for every one that believeth. See Romans 3:25
God’s mercy could only repose on a pedestal of perfect righteousness. “Grace reigns through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.” Romans 5:21

The only proper meeting-place between God and man is the point where grace and righteousness meet and perfectly harmonize.

Nothing but perfect righteousness could satisfy God's justice
Nothing but perfect grace could justify the sinner
But were could these attributes meet in one point?       Only in the Cross.

There it is that “mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other.”
Psalms 85:10.

Thus it is that the soul of the believing sinner finds peace.
He sees that God’s righteousness and his justification rest upon precisely the same basis, namely, Christ's accomplished work.
When man,  under the powerful action of  
THE TRUTH of God,  takes his place as a sinner,  
God can,  in the exercise of
 take His place as a
SAVIOR,  and then every question is settled,  
for the
CROSS having answered all the claims of Divine Justice,  mercy’s copious streams can flow unhindered. 

When a righteous God and a ruined sinner meet on a blood-sprinkled platform (THE MERCY SEAT ),
all is
SETTLED FOREVER - settled in such a way as a perfect Redeemer,  and eternally saves the one who has been redeemed.

However, the ark was not always to be a traveler.
The afflictions of David,”  as well as the wars of Israel,  were to have an end.
The prayer  “Thou and the Ark of Thy Strength.” (Psalms 132:8).  This most sublime petition had its partial accomplishment in the days of Solomon,  when  “the priests brought in the ark of the covenant of the Lord into his place,  into the oracle of the house,  to the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubim.  And drew out the staves,  that the ends of the staves were seen out in the holy place before the oracle,  and they were not seen without:  and there they are unto this day.” I Kings 8:6-8
The sand of the desert was exchanged for the golden floor of the temple. (I Kings 6:30).


Exodus 25:10-22 The Ark of the Covenant and Mercy Seat
Exodus 25:23-30 The Table of Shewbread

God has left out the Golden Altar of Incense - Why??

1. If something is repeated it is calling your attention to it.
2. If something is left out it is saying to you:  "Look at me, I have something to say."
3. Precept upon precept and line upon line as the Scripture states.
4. Rightly dividing the truth is your goal as Paul states in the Scripture.  (II Timothy 2:15)
5. The Bible will explain itself if you search it out.
The Table of Shewbread      Exodus 25:23-30

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Exodus 25:23-30
(23)   Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.
(24)   And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about.
(25)   And thou shalt make unto it a border of an hand breadth round about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about.
(26)  And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof.
(27)  Over against the border shall the rings be for places of the staves to bear the table.
28 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be borne with them.
(29)  And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold shalt thou make them.
(30)  And thou shalt set upon the table Shewbread before me alway.

From Josephus:
“But in the holy place he placed a table,  like those at Delphi:  its length was two cubits,  and its breadth one cubit,  and its height three spans.  It had feet also,  the lower half of which were complete feet,  resembling those which the Dorians put to their bedsteads;  but the upper parts towards the table were wrought into a square form.  The table had a hollow towards every side,  having a ledge of four fingers’  depth,  that went round about like a spiral,  both on the upper and lower part of the body of the work.  Upon every one of the feet was there also inserted a ring,  not far from the cover,  through which went bars of wood beneath,  but gilded,  to be taken out upon occasion,  there being a cavity where it was joined to the rings;  for they were not entire rings;  but before they came quite round,  they ended in acute points,  the one of which was inserted into the prominent part of the table,  and the other into the foot;  and by these it was carried when they journeyed.  Upon this table,  which was placed on the north side of the temple,  not far from the most holy place,  were laid twelve unleavened loaves of bread,  six upon each heap,  one above another:  they were made of two tenth-deals of the purest flour,  which tenth dead  [an omer]  is a measure of the Hebrews,  containing seven Athenian catylae;  and above these loaves were put two vials full of frankincense.
(Antiquities of the Jews Book III Page 73 Josephus)

It was called:

1. Exodus 25:23 The table of shittim wood
2. Leviticus 24:6 The Pure Table
3. Exodus 39:36 The Table

It's purpose
Moses is next instructed about  “the table of shewbread,”  or bread of presentation.
On this sacred table stood the food of the priests of God.  For seven days those twelve loaves of  “fine flour with frankincense”  were presented before the Lord God,  after which,  being replaced by other loaves of bread,  they became the food of the priests,  who fed upon them  (not in their tents)  but in the holy place. (Leviticus 24:5-9)
It is needless to say that those twelve loaves not only typify the twelve tribes of Israel but also show

The loaves of bread the man Jesus Christ  
The fine flour His perfect manhood (He that knew no sin became sin for us)
the frankincense the entire devotion of Jesus to God (I do those things that please my father)

Its location
It occupied the north side of the room according to Exodus 40:22,23.

Its description
A rectangle box on legs.

Its size

Two cubits long 3 feet.
One cubit wide 1 ½ feet.
1 ½ cubits high 2 ½ feet

Its border
The border was either on the top surface of the table or attached to the legs half-way, so as to keep them together like rungs of a chair.  The illustration on the Arch of Titus favors the latter view.  This Arch of Titus (which shows the table of Shewbread taken from the temple in 70AD)  has the central border with traces of decorative work.

Jars ... bowls
Jars and chalices used for the libation of wine which accompanied the burning of the incense.
The former would be the large flagons in which the wine was stored;  the latter,  the bowls used in the actual libation. (Rabbi Hertz)

The Table speaks of Jesus:  
Shittim wood the humanity of Jesus
overlaid with pure gold His Divine Nature

Note the three crowns:
1. Ark of the Covenant Exodus 25:11 THE CROWN OF THE LAW The atoning blood between it, and the cherubim its executant.
2. Altar of Incense Exodus 30:3 THE CROWN OF THE PRIESTHOOD Its incense fired only by the fire from the altar of burnt offerings.
3. Table of Shewbread Exodus 25:24 THE CROWN OF THE KINGDOM The twelve tribes symbolizes by the twelve loaves.

The Boarder of an Hand’s Breadth:
Four fingers are an hand’s breadth and there are four things indispensable for real and right communion with God.

1. FAITH IN JESUS CHRIST which admits us to the family of God (Galatians 3:26; John 1:12)
2. HOLINESS AND CONSISTENCY of the daily walk with God (Ephesians 4:1)
3. SOUNDNESS AND BOLDNESS in maintaining the truth of the person of Christ (Titus 2:8)
4. SUBJECTION to the Lordship of Jesus Christ (Romans 13:1)

There were 12 loaves, in 2 rows of 6 each, placed upon the table:
1. 12 loaves Show a fullness of bread  
2. The 12 loaves They also represent the 12 tribes of Israel
as well as the 12 Apostles
(Revelation 4:10)
3. The 12 loaves were pierced showing not only the suffering but government of Jesus (Isa. 9:6)
4. 2 rows of 6 each show forth the 66 books of the Bible  
5. 2 rows of 6 speaks of witness
and that it is for man
(2 is the number of witness)
(created 6th day)
6. Shewbread made of fine flour “I am that bread of life” Isaiah 53:3-10; John 6:48
7. One bread I Corinthians 10:17  
8. 2/10 deals to each cake typical of the double portion one for time
and one for eternity
9. Frankincense upon each row A type of Faith (also prayer and praise)
10. Renewed weekly Our experience with God must be renewed Leviticus 24:8

Shewbread, ‘bread of the Presence’
It is described in Leviticus 24:5-9,  where it is said to have consisted of twelve loaves of wheaten flour, corresponding in number to the tribes of Israel.  The symbolic meaning of the Shewbread was a matter of conjecture among the Jews.   Maimonides confesses, ‘I DO NOT KNOW THE OBJECT OF THE TABLE WITH THE BREAD UPON IT CONTINUALLY,  AND UP TO THIS DAY I HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO ASSIGN ANY REASON TO THIS COMMANDMENT.’

To the Jew,  its a mystery but to the Church of the Living God,  it is very clear...

Showbread, [lechem paaniym] - literally,  bread of faces,  presence bread  [Septuagint, artoi enoopioi]
(Lev 24:5-9);  so called because it was constantly exhibited before the Lord,  or because the bread of His presence,  like the angel of His presence,  pointed symbolically to Christ.  It consisted of twelve unleavened loaves,  said traditionally to have been laid in piles of six each.  This bread was designed to be a symbol of the full and
never-failing provision which is made in the Church for the spiritual sustenance and refreshment of God's people.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

The Golden Candlestick        Exodus 25:31-40

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Exodus 25:31-26:1
(31)  And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same.
(32)  And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side:
(33)  Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick.
(34)  And in the candlestick shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers.
(35)  And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick.
(36)  Their knops and their branches shall be of the same: all it shall be one beaten work of pure gold.
(37)  And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it.
(38)  And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold.
(39)  Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels.
(40)  And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was shewed thee in the mount.

From Josephus:
“Over against this table, near the southern wall, was set a candlestick of cast gold,  hollow within,  being of the weight of one hundred pounds,  which the Hebrews call Chinchares;  if it be turned into the Greek language,  it denotes a talent.  It was made with its knops,  and lilies,  and pomegranates,  and bowls,  (which ornaments amounted to seventy in all;)  by which means the shaft elevated itself on high from a single base,  and spread itself into as many branches as there are planets,  including the sun among them.  It terminated in seven heads,  in one row,  all standing parallel to one another;  and these branches carried seven lamps,  one by one,  in imitation of the number of the planets.  These lamps looked to the east and to the south,  the candlestick being situate obliquely.”
(Antiquities of the Jews Book III Pg. 73 Josephus)

It was called

menowrah (men-o-raw'); or menorah (men-o-raw') Candlestick

It's purpose

The candlestick of pure gold comes next in order,  for God’s priests need light as well as food;  
and they have both in Jesus Christ.
In this candlestick there is no mention of any thing but pure gold.
All of it shall be one beaten work of pure gold.”
The seven lamps which  “gave light over against the candlestick”  
express the perfection of the light and also the energy of the Holy Spirit which is founded upon and connected with the perfect efficacy of the work of Jesus Christ   
(They may see your good works and glorify your father which is in heaven).

Its location
The Candlestick set on the south side of the Holy Place to the left  (Exodus 26:35).

Its description

1. Pure gold
2. Beaten work
3. A shaft with four bowls made like unto almonds, with knops and flowers
4, Six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches out of each side
5. Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch. 6 Branches x 3 bowls per branch = 18 bowls on the 6 branches

Its size
There  is no size mentioned.
How can you limit the light of God’s word to a lost and dying world?
Remember the words of our Savior and King  “Work while it is day lest the night come when no man can work”  and  “Ye are the light of the world”  and  “And look that thou make them after their pattern which I showed thee in the mount.” Exodus 25:40).

Among the spoils of the Temple (70AD) depicted on the Arch of Titus the candlestick is conspicuous. The six branches of that candlestick curved to the same height as the central shaft, so that all the seven lamps were in a straight line.

Titus,  after the overthrow of Jerusalem in a. D. 70,  had the golden candlestick and the golden table of the shew-bread,  the silver trumpets,  and the book of the law,  taken out of the temple and carried in triumph to Rome and Vespasian lodged them in the temple which he had consecrated to the goddess of Peace.  Some plants also of the balm af Jericho are said to have been carried in the procession.   At the foot of Mount Palatine there are the ruins of an arch on which the triumph of Titus for his conquest of the Jews is represented,  and on which the several monuments which were carried in the procession are sculptured,  and particularly the golden candlestick,  the table of the shew-bread and the two silver trumpets.  A correct MODEL of this arch,  taken on the spot,   now stands before me,  and the spoils of the temple,  the candlestick,  the golden table,  and the two trumpets,  are represented on the panel on the left hand,   in the inside of the arch,  in basso-relievo.
(from Adam Clarke Commentary)

You will notice that there is also a  rendition  with the lamps cascading, instead of straight across, and this is why:

Exodus 25:37

Peshitta “And you shall make the seven lamps thereof; and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it”
Targum of Palestine “And thou shalt make its seven lights, and the priest who ministers shall kindle the lights, that they may shine over upon its face."
Hebrew Cannon “…it shall give light toward the body of it.”
1915 copy of the Hebrew Cannon by Isaac Leeser

Masoretic Text

“…to give light over against it.”
From the Jewish Publication Society in 1965

Conclusion the light must shine on the center shaft, just as our light must reveal the father and Savior of us all.

These were formed in the shape of an opened almond blossom,

the exterior being the ‘knops’,
and the interior the ‘flowers’;
 the outer and inner petals.   (Rabbi Hertz)

Receptacles for the oil and wick, probably shaped like elongated shells.

Over against  it
Or, ‘in front of it.’
According to Rashi,  the lamps were so arranged that the wick-mouths from which the flame burned were directed towards the central shaft.   (Rabbi Hertz)

Talent of pure gold
Josephus gives the weight of a  talent  as one hundred pounds,  and that is approximately correct.
The values would be about six thousand pounds sterling.     (Rabbi Hertz)

Pure gold tells us that our humanity and natural man plays no part in the Gospel Light.
 (Even Jesus,  the man,  did not show forth His own light,  but rather the light of His Father)
 “It is the father within me that does the works”  Jesus was the Word From Heaven,  no wood at all.
Beaten speaks of the  fellowship of His sufferings

The bowl mentioned here in Exodus 25:34 is taken from the Hebrew word meaning  Calyx,  (that green sheathing that covers the buds of the flower,  and opens up as the bud protrudes).
The  knop  is the seed-pod of the flower upon which the blossom appears.

Calyx The Calyx typifies the Father   (John 16:28)
knop The seed pod speaks of Jesus who was the Incorruptible seed of the Word of God, from which is brought forth the Beauty and Fragrance of the Holy Spirit. 

This central shaft was made up of 4 bowls, and 4 knops and 4 flowers,  and can only speak of:

Jesus who being the Creative Force of God as the Word of God as we find in Hebrews 1:2  
“….by whom also he made the worlds;”

See the spiritual significance of numbers in the introduction of this study.

The six branches,  three from either side,  each containing  3 bowls,  3 knops,  and 3 flowers,  or 9 parts (Finality of judgment).   I also want to point to you another type of 9 that is found in I Corinthians 12:4-10.  Wisdom,  word of knowledge,  faith,  gifts of healing,  working of miracles,  prophecy,  discerning of spirits,  divers kinds of tongues,  the interpretation of tongues.  Nine in all gifts of the Holy Spirit:

1. The Holy Spirit (9) show forth God’s anointed and Spirit-filled ministers.
2. The 3 branches on the left of the Candlestick, are made up of 9 parts, making a total of 27 parts, typify the Old Testament prophets together with the central shaft, containing 12 parts, typifying Jesus ministry (which was under the law)  making a total of 39 parts,  which just happens to be the number of books in the Old Testament.
3. The 3 branches on the right of the Candlestick,  each with their 9 parts,  signify the books of the New Testament which just happens to be 27. 
4. The Holy Spirit is not only the 9 gifts to the church, but also as Jesus states of the Comforter which is the Holy Spirit will “reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:”   John 16:7,8

The Candlestick would not be complete or perfect with either the Old or New Testament missing.

Three denotes completeness,  as three lines complete a plane figure.
Hence, three is a significant of Divine perfection and completeness.

The third day completes the fundamentals of creation-work.
The fourth, fifth,   and sixth days are the counterpart and repetition of the first,  second,  and third days of creation and correspond respectively.
The number three includes Resurrection also;  for on the third day the earth rose up out of the deep,  and fruit rose up out of the earth.
Jesus Christ rose up from the grave on the 3rd day.
We have a multiplication of 4 x 3, or 12, which is the number of parts in the main three, or a Fullness.

The central shaft speaks to us of

Jesus Christ the center and source of our unity  (1 piece)  and power in the Spirit.  
Fruitberring Jesus is the True Vine and we His followers are the Branches
Testimony Jesus is the Candlestick and His servants are the branches.

The 6 branches proceed from the sides of the main Candlestick in pairs, not from the front:

Not to exalt ourselves,  but to show forth Jesus Christ
For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake.”   II Corinthians 4:5.

Pure Oil Olive
Leviticus 24:1-4.  A particular type of olive that gives forth much oil, but it first must be beaten and bruised,  and then put into a press under tremendous pressure so that the oil might be extracted. 
God is the Oil Press.

1. Oil was for anointing - Jesus was anointed.   Acts 4:27;  Isaiah 61:1;  Luke 4:18
2. Jesus had the spirit without measure.   John 3:34.

A Candlestick without fire is absolutely useless as a “light-giver”,  even though it be made of pure gold and is highly polished.

1. The Priests walked in this light to perform the services of God.
So we must walk in Him  (our light)  to fulfill His service.
2. The Priests could only fulfill God’s services as they walked in the light that He provides.
3. All natural light was excluded.
4. The moment they wished to walk by natural light they must go outside the tabernacle.
5. As soon ass they were outside, they could no longer see the wondrous things inside.

The light

1. Was derived from a source that never went out.     John 10:28
2. It was trimmed daily.     Exodus 30:7,8.
3. It revealed the table of Shewbread.
4. It also revealed the altar of incense  -  Praise and Prayer.

The light was promised to

1. The obedient Job 22:28
2. The upright Psalms 112:4
3. The just Proverbs 4:18
4. The benevolent Isaiah 58:7,8
5. The Church of the Last days Isaiah 60:19,20

None but the priest had any jurisdiction over the Candlestick

Even so none but Jesus who is the Christ of God can give us light.
It is Jesus who trims the lamps, and instructs us in His service.

No measurement is given of the Candlestick

Jesus came as a light to every man who came into the world.
Whosoever will may come to this light.

Duties performed in the light

1. Worshipping II Chronicles 5:13,14
2. Working John 9:4
3. Warring Romans 13:12
4. Witnessing Philippines 2:15
5. Watching I Thessalonians 5:5,6

Christ is our light
John 1:4,9;8:12;12:46 and I John 1:5 and Ephesians 5:14 and I John 1:7.

The Framework of the Tabernacle        Exodus 26:15-30

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Exodus 26:15-31
(15)  And thou shalt make boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood standing up.
(16)  Ten cubits shall be the length of a board, and a cubit and a half shall be the breadth of one board.
(17)  Two tenons shall there be in one board, set in order one against another: thus shalt thou make for all the boards of the tabernacle.
(18)  And thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle, twenty boards on the south side southward.
(19)  And thou shalt make forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons.
(20)  And for the second side of the tabernacle on the north side there shall be twenty boards:
(21)  And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.
(22)  And for the sides of the tabernacle westward thou shalt make six boards.
(23)  And two boards shalt thou make for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides.
(24)  And they shall be coupled together beneath, and they shall be coupled together above the head of it unto one ring: thus shall it be for them both; they shall be for the two corners.
(25)  And they shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board.
(26)  And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle,
(27)  And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the two sides westward.
(28)  And the middle bar in the midst of the boards shall reach from end to end.
(29)  And thou shalt overlay the boards with gold, and make their rings of gold for places for the bars: and thou shalt overlay the bars with gold.
(30)  And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle according to the fashion thereof which was shewed thee in the mount.

An oblong box.

30 x 10 x 10 cubits.

Box divided into two parts

1. Holy Place 20 x 10 x 10 cubits
2. Holy of Holies 10 x 10 x 10 cubits

Parts of the framework


1. 48 boards
2. Each board was 1 ½ cubits wide by 10 cubits in length
3. There were 20 boards on the south
8 boards on the west (2 are lapped in the corners)
20 boards on the north
4. Each board had two tenons (like feet) on the bottom which stood in two sockets of silver
5. Each board was covered over with gold    (Isaiah 52:7)

These boards were held in place by five bars on each of the three sides, while 20 cubits back were 4 pillars, which supported the inner vail which separated the Holy Place, front, from the Most Holy Place, back.


Jesus Christ

1. The combination of His human and Divine natures - God manifested in the flesh      (I Timothy 3:16)
2. The two contrasting materials of which each board was made,  (the wood and the gold)  illustrate perfectly the humanity (wood)
and the Divinity (gold) of Christ.
3. Since the acacia wood had always been noted for its incorruptibility,  we have a fitting symbol of the sinlessness and incorruptibility of the human nature of Jesus.
Peter tells us Jesus did no sin,  neither was guile found in His mouth.    (I Peter 2:22)
4. Jesus was tempted in all points like as we are, yet without sin    (Hebrews 4:15)
See also John 3:5;     Hebrews 7:26.
5. Even in death His body didn’t see corruption,  for it was prophesied
 “His soul would not be left in hell, neither would His flesh see corruption"    (Acts 2:31)

The Church

1. They represent the individual believers of whom the church is composed;
built together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.     (Ephesians 2:22)
2. From the position of the boards,  standing up,  we may be reminded that they must have previously been cut down.  
Even so believers were once children of wrath.   (Ephesians 2:5)
3. But they have been selected by Divine Grace and have been brought low by the conviction of the Holy Spirit, are now standing in Grace
4. Each board would fit anywhere it was placed,  so we should fit anywhere God wants to place us
5. Though every regenerated soul is born into the family of God,  and as such has his place in the church,  yet in order to properly fill that place in the assembly of believers,  three things are necessary-
Faith Faith in redemption represent Depth down to the sockets of silver
Hope Hope of glory represent Height up to the rings of gold
Love Love to All Saints represent Breadth extending to boards on either side

These 48 boards were made of shittim wood,  typifying consecrated humanity
overlaid with pure gold, overshadowed by the very presence of God Himself.

1. 48 is the product of fullness (12) x cleansing (4),
or showing forth the fullness of cleansing that is offered to all men who will avail themselves of the provision made on Calvary.
2. 48 is also the product of (8)
which speaks of resurrection  (Jesus arose from the grave the 8th or 1st day of the week), x (6),
 man or resurrected man.
3. Consider Romans 6:3,4.  The number does not mean that God has limited His Church to that number only,  but rather,  that  ALL  who meet those particular qualifications may enter and partake. Exodus 26:19.

Standing on silver sockets show the atonement work of Calvary (30 pieces of silver) where Jesus paid the Price of Redemption.

Please note in Exodus 30:11-16 the Lord commanded and demanded that every man of Israel,  who was numbered, was compelled to pay ½ shekels of silver to make an atonement for his soul.

1. A ½ shekel is 10 gerahs  (10 is the number in Bible numerics for Judgment)
2. The rich pays no more and the poor pays no less.
3. Everyone was equal.
4. The ½ speaks of the broken body of Jesus Christ.

There were two silver sockets for each board. These silver sockets separated the boards from the desert.

1. Once we become separated from the world, we must be found always separated by the power of God as we remain the true foundation of Jesus Christ.
2. Also each revelation of God that we receive brings us to a further spiritual separation from every worldly hindrance.

Again there were two sockets of silver under each board. These sockets were the foundation of the Tabernacle. Psalms 11:3 shows us the importance of the foundation.

1. We have so many WINDS OF DOCTRINE today,  that we must be sure we are standing firm upon the solid foundation of Jesus Christ.
2. We are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner stone.”

Five on each side

1. Speaks of the 5-fold ministry.
 “And he gave some Apostles,  Prophets,  Evangelists,  Pastors, Teachers”     (Ephesians 4:11-13)
2. Also held together by the atoning work of Jesus Christ
The Covering of the Tabernacle         Exodus 26:31, 32

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The Inner Vail

Exodus 26:31-35
(31)  And thou shalt make a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning 
work: with cherubims shall it be made:
(32)  And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold: their hooks shall be of gold, upon the four sockets of silver.
(33)  And thou shalt hang up the vail under the taches, that thou mayest bring in thither within the vail the ark of the testimony: and the vail shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy.
(34)  And thou shalt put the mercy seat upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place.
(35)  And thou shalt set the table without the vail, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south: and thou shalt put the table on the north side.

Now we come to the third opening (coming from the outside). The first opening being the Gate of the Court which led to the Brazen Altar and the Laver.  There we see:

Jesus as the way
He is the way to the place of cleansing
He is the way to the blood (the cleansing from the penalty of sin)
He is the way to the water (the Word of cleansing from the defilement of sin)

Then we see the second entry, the Door:

Jesus is the Truth
Jesus is the door of truth that leads us to the place of the Golden Candlestick, the quickening and light of the Word and world
He is the door of truth that leads us to the place of the Table of Shewbread, the table of Himself that feeds and nourishes us in Him.

Now we come to the Third Entry which pictures Jesus as the Life.  (John 14:6)

The Vail,  the Third Entry,  broke or separated between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. It also signifies something hidden. This vail served as a screen to hide the things in the Holy of Holies and also hide the glory of God above the mercy seat. Exodus 34:33-35; II Corinthians 3:18.

When Israel desired to know the mind of God, the high priest would come and stand before this vail with the Urim and Thummim (see the High Priest and His garments). And as the rays of the Shekinah glory came through the vail and touched the lights of the Urim and Thummim,  then they knew the will of God for the people. 

Now we,  the Church of the Living God,  have access to the throne of God,  not as a high Priest only,  but as Sons of the Living God,  through Jesus Christ our Lord,  as the power from His throne touches the lights and perfection of the seed of the Word in our hearts.  Then we grow in the knowledge of His will.  This vail meant life for Israel,  for as the priest stood here and discerned the will of God,  it meant life to them.

This Inner Vail was made of the same materials as the Outer Vail with these three exceptions:

1. The Inner Vail had Cherubim woven with Gold
2. It hung upon 4 pillars instead of 5
3. These 4 pillars stood in sockets of silver rather than brass

In Matthew 27:51-53. It is commonly taught that this Vail only teaches the rending of Jesus Flesh upon Calvary. Actually the Outer Vail more perfectly shows his death.

1. The four curtains speak of cleansing for us
2. The five pillars speak of atonement for us
3. Considering the fact that there were 20 cubits distance between these two Vails, shows us, dispensationally speaking,  that there are 2,000 years between the two. (Joshua 3:3,4)  
Now here stood Israel at the crossing of Jordan (death to carnality),  but by the command of God, the Ark (Jesus) proceeded the congregation into death by approximately 2,000 years.
Now the congregation must follow.
4. These 4 pillars speak of cleansing through (self-crucifixion); standing not upon judgment, but rather upon the redemptive work of Jesus Christ accomplished on Calvary.
The Gate had 4 pillars 4 Gospels The Way
The Door had 5 pillars 5 Writers of Epistles* The Truth
The Vail had 4 pillars 4  Gospels The Life

* 5 Writers: Paul, Peter, James, John and Jude.


Thou shalt set
Rashi gives the traditional account of the arrangement of the furniture in the Tabernacle.
The Table of Shewbread was set in the north,  two and a half cubits from the wall;
the candlestick in the south,  an equal distance from the wall;
and between the two was the Golden altar of incense.

The Outer Vail

Exod 26:36-37
(36)  And thou shalt make an hanging for the door of the tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework.
(37)  And thou shalt make for the hanging five pillars of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, and their hooks shall be of gold: and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them.

The Outer Vail has a hanging made of blue,  purple,  scarlet, and fine-twined linen.  The fine-twined linen tells the story of the extreme and detailed sufferings which Jesus Christ bore in His flesh. “But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.” Isaiah 53:5

1. The 4 Curtains signify cleansing for us
2. The 5 pillars speak of atonement
3. The Brass Sockets speak of Jesus bearing out judgment

As the Eastern Gate was a type of Christ (the way)
even so the Door is a type of Christ (the Truth).  Isaiah gives 5 names to Christ:

1. Wonderful
2. Counselor
3. Mighty God
4. Everlasting Father
5. Prince of Peace

Another significance of the five pillars is the overcoming Church (God’s present dwelling place).
Revelation 3:12, tells us that the Overcomer will be made a pillar in the Temple of God.
As the pillars held up and showed off the white linen curtain,  so will the overcomers show forth the righteousness of Christ.  Ephesians 4:24; I Peter 2:9.


1. Blue Threads dyed a very dark blue, perhaps violet, derived, according to the Rabbis, from the blood of a shell-fish found in the Mediterranean Sea.
2. Purple A reddish purple; a dye likewise obtained from a species of shell-fish . “And Judas returned to take the spoils of the camp, and they got much gold, and silver, and blue silk, and purple of the sea, and great riches.” I Machabees 4:23
3. Scarlet “Worm of shinning”,  from its brilliant hue.  The worm referred to is the cochineal insect.  The Arabs called it  ‘kirmiz’,  whence is derived the English word ‘crimson’.
4. Fine Linen ‘A kind of linen which was only produced in Egypt’ (Ibn Ezra), and worn by the royal family and the highest officials.
5. Goat's Hair This hair was woven by women into yarn (Exodus 35:26) making a hard-wearing material most suitable as a tent-covering.
6. Sealskins (Badgers skins) Hebrew word here is Tachash; possibly a species of sea-animal 
common in the Red Sea.  Jewish legend explains it as a unique animal, which existed only in the time of Moses.
7. Acacia-wood Wood of Shittim’,  the Arabic name of the acacia tree.  This tree grows abundantly in the Sinai Peninsula,  but not farther north.  It is a most durable wood.

The offering was brought willingly in great abundance;  so much so there was some to spare.  In the gathering of these materials we shall find exemplified in the Lord Jesus Christ,  the supplier of every need that man has.
For in the man Jesus dwells the mighty Jehovah Jireh,  the God who provides. (Genesis 22:14)

The entire Tabernacle was made of, and with,  available material and personnel.
Israel did not import anything or any one from a surrounding nation.
They used,  and God used,  what they had.
The Church does not need the worlds methods or schemes to build the Kingdom of God.
As the Scripture states  “Except the Lord build the house, we labor in vain that build it.” Psalms 127:1.

The Coverings

The 1st Covering - Fine Twined Linen

Exodus 26:1-6
(1)  Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work shalt thou make them.
(2)  The length of one curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and every one of the curtains shall have one measure.
(3)  The five curtains shall be coupled together one to another; and other five curtains shall be coupled one to another.
(4)  And thou shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou make in the uttermost edge of another curtain, in the coupling of the second.
(5)  Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make in the edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of the second; that the loops may take hold one of another.
(6)  And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, and couple the curtains together with the taches: and it shall be one tabernacle.

The fine twined linen typifies  “The Righteousness of God”  which we obtain through Jesus Christ, and becomes our

First Covering
or our undergarments
our foundation

without which we haven’t even started. 

1. Made of ten curtains
speaks of  judgment  in Bible Numerics
2. Interspersed with embroidery work of blue, purple, scarlet and golden cherubims.
The traditional explanation is that in this class of work a design appeared on both sides of the fabric.
Speaks of the mixture of  God and  Man in Christ Jesus.
3. Blue thread
Speaks of the Holy Spirit from Heaven, Holy Ghost anointing
4. Purple thread
Speaks of the Royalty of Christ in us,
for He came from Heaven,
he was Anointed - blue -  (so are we) and
was bathed in blood - red - (so are we) and
the mixture of Blue and Red makes Purple
5. Scarlet thread
Speaks of the Blood which constantly covers
6. Cherubims of Gold  (made of a fine golden wire)
Shows the presence of God.
Jesus is that golden thread throughout the Scriptures. John 5:39
7. These ten curtains were all identical in size and construction,  28 cubits in length
4 x 7 = 28
4 is cleansing and
7 is perfection,  or perfect cleansing in Christ Jesus, and
4 cubits wide  (again there is cleansing for all)
8. Five Curtains sewn together to become one curtain
5 is the number of atonement, and we are One in Christ
having had our sins atoned for by the blood that came from His 5 wounds
Remember that we are His Tabernacle
9. Then another 5 curtains sewn together to become one curtain,
and then the two large curtains being fastened together by means of 50 loops of Blue each
50 means Pentecost and
Blue stands for the Holy Spirit who came down from heaven on the day of Pentecost
Two curtain of 50 loops each, totaling a double portion of Pentecost
(The former and latter Rain of  Hosea 6:3)
10. The tabernacle was 30 cubits long, 10 cubits wide and 10 cubits high,  totaling 3,000 cubits of cubical content,
Typifying 3,000 years from Jesus to the end of the Millennium
11. There was a division between the front and the back, and the front was 20 cubits long
Typifying the 2,000 years of the Church Age,
and the one large curtain was the exact size to place over the ‘Holy Place’
12. Having 9 cubits of curtain hanging down on either side but lacking one cubit of touching the ground
Speaks of the work of the Holy Spirit = 9 gifts    (I Cor. 12)
Tells us that we may not contaminate the righteousness of Jesus with human effort
13. The two large curtains were then fastened together by means of 50 Gold Pins, (taches)
Which speaks again of Pentecost
14. This connection is made directly over the Golden Altar,  or just at the  ‘Inner Vail’
Signifies the end of this age.
“In the last days I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh”
and the time of great travail that must take place soon.
Then we shall see the fullness of God’s power poured out upon His Church,
and not only a double portion,
but a 3-fold power of spiritual outpouring.
Consider this, Elijah went with the third fifty (2 Kings 1).
15. The second large curtain covers the back part called  ‘The Most Holy Place’, and this time it reaches to the ground behind
The eternal reign of Jesus Christ and His Church
at that time the ground (or earth) will not be contaminated,  for there shall be a New Heaven and a New Earth which are not contaminated.
Exod 26:6
  “And thou shalt make fifty clasps of gold, and couple the curtains one to another with the clasps,
that the Tabernacle may be one whole.”

They were formed of separate pieces, yet they were so arranged that when they formed the covering of the Tabernacle they were a single whole. Similarly the community of Israel, comprising different tribes and families, must be linked together in peace and solidarity (Ibn Ezra)

How much More should the church be one in Jesus Christ.

John 17:21-23

(21)   that all of them may be one,  Father,  just as you are in me and I am in you.  May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me.  (22)  I have given them the glory that you gave me,  that they may be one as we are one:  (23)  I in them and you in me.  May they be brought to complete unity to let the world know that you sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.     (NIV)

Ephesians 1:10

To be put into effect when the times will have reached their fulfillment-to bring all things in heaven and on
earth together under one head, even Christ.    (NIV)

Ephesians 2:14-22

(14)  For he himself is our peace, who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility,  (15)  by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace,  (16)  and in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility.  (17)  He came and preached peace to you who were far away and peace to those who were near.  (18)  For through him we both have access to the Father by one Spirit.

(19)  Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household,  (20)  built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone.  (21)  In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord.  (22)  And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit. (NIV)

The 2nd Covering - Goat's Hair

Exodus 26:7-13
(7)    And thou shalt make curtains of goats' hair to be a covering upon the tabernacle: eleven curtains shalt thou make.
(8)    The length of one curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and the eleven curtains shall be all of one measure.
(9)    And thou shalt couple five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and shalt double the sixth curtain in the forefront of the tabernacle.
(10)  And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second.
(11)  And thou shalt make fifty taches of brass, and put the taches into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one.
(12)  And the remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remaineth, shall hang over the backside of the tabernacle.
(13)  And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side of that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the tent, it shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it.

This curtain of Goat’s Hair is made up of 11 curtains and in Bible Numerics 11 speaks of Mercy Towards Man. And in view of the fact that there were 6 curtains sewn together and placed over the front part,  we believe it tells us that God’s mercy is toward our humanity,  or rather,  covers our humanity. 
(6 = number of man, created on 6th day)

1. Their measurements are now different from the first curtain - 30 Cubits
Which speak of God’s judgment upon us until we are cleansed
2. This Sanctuary must be clean
Their ends reached unto the ground on either side,
and so does our humanity also reach to this earth,
and is often contaminated with worldly affairs,
but again, there is the cleansing.
3. Note that the six become one, were placed over the front end
or the church age  (2,000 cubits is the first section)
For during the millennium  (1,000 cubits of the last section)  our  ‘humanity’ or  ‘mortality’ will have passed away.
(It ends with the 7th Trump in Revelation 10:7).

The 3rd Covering - Ram's Skin dyed red

Exodus 26:14a
And thou shalt make a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red ...

Jesus was that Lamb of God. His raiment was dyed red with His own blood.
He tread that “winepress” alone for us.    (Isaiah 63:1-7;    Revelation 19:13-15)

1. No measurements mentioned
but enough to cover all who would come. And the 3rd covering must show forth God’s Seal and Sign
2. We are always under the Blood
This is our protection against Satanic possession and deception.
The first blood covenant was made with Adam, who in turn taught his sons.
Abel believes it,
Noah offered a lamb,
Isaac became Abraham’s lamb,
Moses had an altar and
Calvary became ours.

The 4th - Outer Covering (drab, rough cover) - Badger Skins

Exodus 26:14b
... and a covering above of badgers' skins.

The only covering visible from the outside.

1. This cover had no definite measure
“…he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is NO BEAUTY that we should DESIRE HIM.” (Isaiah 53:2)
2. Absolutely no beauty-unattractive appearance
“As many were astounded at thee;  his visage was so marred more than any man,  and his form more than the sons of men.    (Isaiah 52:14;   Matthew 27:26-31)
3. Covered the beauty within
So it was with Jesus.  “And was transfigured before them:  and his face did shine as the sun,  and his raiment was white as the light.”    (Matthew 17:2)

The Altar of Burnt Offering     Exodus 27:1-8

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Exodus 27:1-8
(1)   And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood, five cubits long, and five cubits broad; the altar shall be foursquare: and the height thereof shall be three cubits.
(2)   And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof: his horns shall be of the same: and thou shalt overlay it with brass.
(3)   And thou shalt make his pans to receive his ashes, and his shovels, and his basons, and his fleshhooks, and his firepans: all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass.
(4)   And thou shalt make for it a grate of network of brass; and upon the net shalt thou make four brasen rings in the four corners thereof.
(5)   And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar beneath, that the net may be even to the midst of the altar.
(6)   And thou shalt make staves for the altar, staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with brass.
(7)   And the staves shall be put into the rings, and the staves shall be upon the two sides of the altar, to bear it.
(8)   Hollow with boards shalt thou make it: as it was shewed thee in the mount, so shall they make it. 

It was called:

1. Exodus 38:30 The Brazen Altar
2. Exodus 35:16 The Altar of Burnt Offering
3. Leviticus 1:5 The Altar by the Door of the Tabernacle
4. Exodus 27:1 The Altar of Shittim Wood

Its Purpose:

This altar stood in the court yard just inside the gate.  It was the foundation of the whole worship of the nation of Israel.  Their very acceptance with their God depended upon the sacrifices that were offered upon it.

How true it is that the spiritual life of every believer is bound upon the cross of Calvary of which this altar was a clear type.

Its Location:

1. The Brazen Altar stood at the gate of entrance representing God’s claims.
These must be met before God can have fellowship with the sinner.
2. This altar demanded a sacrifice and blood.
There the innocent bore the judgment for the guilty. (Isaiah 53:3-6; Hebrews 9:12-14)
3. The altar was the place of meeting.
God meets man at the altar. (Romans 10:9,10)
The Cross today is the basis and ground of all access To and fellowship With God.

Its Size:

Made of shittim wood, overlaid with brass. It’s dimensions were 5 Cubits square by 3 Cubits high and was overlaid with Brass. The types are as follows:

1. Overlaid with brass
Brass is a type of  judgment with mercy
Here we see  “Consecrated Humanity”  being immersed in Judgment, and holding within itself the fires that are able to burn out our dross.   (Malachi 3:1-6)
2. 3 cubits high, 5 cubits square
The height declares it to be God’s while
the width speaks of Atonement
3. The altar was hollow
Showing our utter inability to fulfill God’s will in our own strength.
4. There were no steps up to the altar
Man could take no steps (works) of himself toward God.
“No man comes to God unless the Spirit draws him”
God has taken all the steps toward man
5. The fire could burn without and within
A type of complete consecration
6. The altar had capacity enough to contain all the other vessels of the sanctuary
Thus within one great sacrifice on the Cross every spiritual blessing is comprehended.
All of our blessings are linked up with and are a result of Christ’s death and blood.

General Information

This altar was fashioned and built by the hands of man,  that the beloved Son of God was crucified;

 “Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain:” Acts 2:23

The word  Altar  is the Hebrew word  Mizbeach  and is derived from the Hebrew word  Zabach  meaning  to kill or  to slay  and also means  offer  or  sacrifice.

It is a type of Jesus Christ who Offered Himself up as a sacrifice for the sins of the world.

This altar had to do with priestly ministry and consecration and the fire never went out upon it. Leviticus 6:13.

We find in Leviticus 1 that the Burnt offering was the only offering of the Five that was ALL CONSUMED by the fire (In the study of Leviticus you will find the Jesus Christ is a type of all five offerings).
He willingly offered Himself a whole burnt offering. He held nothing back and thus satisfied the heart of God for us.  HE HELD NOTHING BACK.
1. INWARDS affections, devotions and desires
2. HEAD thoughts and will
3. LEGS walk, conduct
4. FAT general health and vigor of the whole

There was a horn upon each corner of this altar.

These horns speak of atonement being offered to the four corners of the earth.

The horn also speaks of:

1. THE POWER of Calvary’s finished work
2. THE POWER of God in raising Jesus from the dead
3. THE POWER of God in spoiling principalities and evil powers
4. THE POWER of saving, healing and baptizing with the Holy Spirit

There were projections at each of the four corners of the altar. The commonly accepted view is that they were pointed at the top. Josephus, describing the altar in the Second Temple, says:

From Josephus:
“Before this tabernacle there was reared a brazen altar,  but it was within made of wood,  five cubits by measure on each side,  but its height was but three,  in like manner adorned with brass plates,  as bright as gold.   It had also a brazen hearth of net-work;  for the ground underneath received the fire from the hearth,  because it had no basis to receive it.  Hard by this altar lay the basins,  and the vials,  and the censers,  and the caldrons,  made of gold;  but the other vessels,  made for the use of the sacrifices were all of brass.” 
(Josephus Antiquities of the Jews book III Pg. 73)

The purpose of the horns can only be conjectured.
The horn was the symbol of

power  (Psalms 18:2; Jeremiah 48:25; Daniel 7:8)

and these horns no doubt typified to the worshipper the might of God and His ability to protect those who resorted to His altar.

Consequently,  a fugitive,  unless he was a murderer,  obtained safety by seizing hold of the altar-horns.
Among the Greeks,  an altar gave asylum to every murderer.
In the Middle Ages,  the Church offered  ‘Sanctuary’  to criminals of every description.

The Brazen Altar is a type of Jesus Christ in that Christ the man covered with righteousness by which he could stand the Divine force which was to try him.  Even as the shittim wood could not have withstood the fire which was kindled upon it and kept burning without a covering,  even so the man Jesus who is the Christ of God could not have withstood the fiery trials which were to beset Him,  without being covered or overlaid with the very presence of Almighty God.

All of the other pieces of furniture in the tabernacle no,  matter how costly,  or what their official work or power was to be,  they were not of the slightest value to the worshipper until the Blood that was shed on the Brazen Altar had touched them.  
In the 9th chapter of the book of Hebrews,  the power of the blood of the sacrifices,  verses 19 & 21.
Note: it is not recorded in the Pentateuch that the Tabernacle was sprinkled with blood, though it and all that was therein was anointed with oil. Exodus 30:22-31.

Josephus,  like the writer of the book of Hebrews,  regards the Tabernacle as having been consecrated with blood:

“The same he did to the tabernacle, and the vessels thereto belonging,  both with
oil first incensed,  as I said,  and with the blood of bulls and of rams,  slain day by 
day one,  according to its kind.”    
Josephus Book III Chapter 8 Page 77.

All priests,  their garments,  the sacred vessels,  everything was unfit for services until the blood which was shed at the Brazen Altar had touched and sanctified them.
Here we find the mute story of the Cross of Christ,  Calvary.
There is no pardon,  no righteousness,  no peace,  no grace,  no blessings  and  no salvation,  except through the sacrifice of the Cross.

We also read that the fire upon the Altar was to,  “never go out”,  Leviticus 6:13.
There is no hour,  day or night,  that a transgressor cannot find the Atonement of Calvary.

Christ,  a type of the Priest who when the time came for him to remove the ashes,  he laid aside his priestly garments and put on other garments,  ( Leviticus 6:11)  and carried the ashes without the camp and put them in a  “clean place,”  or a place prepared for them,  and even so the Lord Jesus put off his robe and became the sin bearer for the people.  He was buried in a new tomb.

The four horns stand for:

N = North
E = East
W = West
S = South

And the message of the Cross truly is good  NEWS,  N-E-W-S,  for all men,  North and East and 
West and South.   It is the good news that

The Rings

It might be interesting now to notice the rings which held the staves.
A ring is a circle which means promise, eternal, complete or fullness.
It also speaks of eternal judgment since the rings were also made of Brass.

In another type it speaks of the eternal promise of salvation to all who will hear the story of the Cross which is symbolized by the carrying of the Altar on the shoulders of the priests.  
There is quite a contrast in the type,  yet what a beautiful picture of the mercy of God.
The promise of eternal judgment of sin (the rings of brass)  and the beautiful type of the promise of eternal Salvation and life.

The Staves

The two staves speak of the two parts of the Gospel, the Death and the Resurrection of Jesus Christ,  balance and complement each other.
The one without the other is impossible, and useless.
Without the death of Jesus there could,  of course,  have been no resurrection,  and no salvation  (I Corinthians 15:12-14).
Without the resurrection of Christ,  His death was futile,  fruitless, and sterile and helpless.
A dead Christ can save no one - He could not save himself,
but a living Christ who was dead and conquered death is a Savior to whom all may come and absolute confidence and hope and security.

The Sin Offering
In the sin offering we find that all the blood was poured out at the bottom of this altar.
Since Christ was the perfect sin offering,  this speaks to us how all the Blood of Christ on the Cross was poured out of His body.  When He was resurrected,  He was no longer  “flesh and blood”  but  “flesh and bone.”
His blood had been shed for us,  yes,  for all mankind.

Four Sides

The Altar had four sides and was built four square.
The things in the Tabernacle which are built foursquare,  are all significant of the thing in which we shall continue in throughout Eternity.  The great city, the Holy Jerusalem,  or the Bride which descends out of Heaven, is  foursquare.   (Revelation 21:2,10-16)

5 Vessels

In connection with the Altar,  there were five vessels,  all made of brass.  These all spoke of judgment;  yet they all spoke also of grace.

Brass is a type of Judgment,  and the number 
Five is a type of Grace.

The altar holds out two alternatives to the corners of the Earth. 

The Cross is either a savour of life, or a 
savour of death, 

depending on what attitude and action you take.   (I Corinthians 1:18) 
The Bible is very clear that there is no middle-of-the-road position.
It is either Grace or Judgment, and you make the choice.

Vessels-pans, shovels, basins, fleshhooks and fire pans used in making sacrifices All were made of Brass.

The Basins
To receive the blood which was poured out at the bottom of the altar.

A type of Jesus pouring out is Life unto death.

The Pans
The fire pans were to carry the live coals from the Altar to light the candlestick and cause the incense to burn on the Golden Altar. They were also used to carry coals for the censers. The original fire from the Altar, sent by God, (Leviticus 9:22-24) lit every other fire in the Tabernacle.

So the fire of Calvary is the flame that sparks every other subsequent blaze in our lives.

The Flesh Hooks
For placing the pieces in order upon the wood and arranging them so that all would be consumed.

A type of the Holy Spirit’s work in our lives consuming all that is not perfect before God.

The Brazen Grate
That held up the sacrifice was on a level with the Mercy Seat. Mercy is proportioned with Sacrifice. It was suspended between the top and the bottom.

Reminding us that God’s Judgment was suspended between Heaven and Earth to reconcile God and man.

The Staves
For carrying the Altar.  It was always with them.

Just so the finished work of Christ is ever set before the believer that he may lay hold of it and enjoy it to its fullest measure.

Half-way round the Altar there ran a ledge,  probably made of copper,  and this rested upon a brazen grating,   2 ½ feet in height.   According to Tradition,  this ledge was a cubit in width,  and seems to have been used by the priests to stand on.  Attached to the grating were rings to enable the Altar to be carried.   (Rabbi Hertz)

The Planks
The Altar consisted of wooden planks covered with metal, so that the inside was hollow.
Rashi explains that the command in Exodus 20:24,  ‘an altar of earth thou shalt make unto Me,’  signifies that a mound of earth,  equal to the dimensions of the hollow of the Altar, was heaped up,  and the casing of the Altar set over it.   (Rabbi Hertz)

The Rabbis explained the symbolism of the Altar  (Every one from Josephus to Israel and the Church uses symbolisms)  by making each letter of the Hebrew name for Altar
MIZBEACH the initial of a word.

1. Forgiveness the Altar was the channel whereby the Israelite could seek reconciliation with God from Whom he had become estranged by sin.
2. Merit gratitude, humility,  contrition found an outlet on the Altar, and by the exercise of these virtues, life was ennobled and ‘merit’ acquired.
3. Blessing by being true to the teachings that centered round the altar, man earns the Divine blessings and himself becomes a blessing to his fellowmen.
4. Life the Altar points the way of the life everlasting,  to the things that abide for evermore, truth,  righteousness,  holiness.

(Rabbi Hertz)
I give you the information as to what the Rabbi’s believe to show you that you see that blindness has happened unto Israel until the fullness of the gentiles be come in.

Now I give you the same warning that Paul gave in Romans 11:21

“For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee.”

No one could enter the Tabernacle without passing the Altar.

Neither can we approach God without taking Jesus as the sacrifice for our sins.

No man can come to the Father without going through Jesus, and that by His death and having His blood applied to their hearts.    (John 14:6; John 1:12)

The Outer Court     Exodus 27:9-15

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Exodus 27:9-16
(9)    And thou shalt make the court of the tabernacle: for the south side southward there shall be hangings for the court of fine twined linen of an hundred cubits long for one side:
(10)  And the twenty pillars thereof and their twenty sockets shall be of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver.
(11)  And likewise for the north side in length there shall be hangings of an hundred cubits long, and his twenty pillars and their twenty sockets of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver.
(12)  And for the breadth of the court on the west side shall be hangings of fifty cubits: their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.
(13)  And the breadth of the court on the east side eastward shall be fifty cubits.
(14)  The hangings of one side of the gate shall be fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their sockets three.
(15)  And on the other side shall be hangings fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their sockets three.
(16)  And for the gate of the court shall be an hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework: and their pillars shall be four, and their sockets four.

The Fence about the Court

The court  typifies the body
while the tabernacle inside the court typifies the soul and spirit nature of man I Thessalonians 5:23.

The white court could be referred to as a large cloth fence surrounding the Tabernacle building.
This presented a very striking contrast to the black goats hair tents of Israel’s dwelling places all around it.

It is fruitless to talk to anyone in a black tent about anything beyond the Court.
He cannot see it unless he has been born into it,  as it is too high for him.  
A sinner can only grasp one thing,  that is salvation.
After he is saved and enters the One Door (Jesus Christ) of the court, he will see there is more,  but only then.

The outer court was to measure:

Length = 100 Cubits square root of  judgment
Width = 50 Cubits Pentecost

Luke 9:13-17,  5,000 fed and seated in companies of 50, vs. 17,
and they did eat and were filled and there was taken up of the fragments that remained 12 baskets.
When Pentecost is fulfilled on the part of man, the hungry shall be filled.

There were:

100 Cubits
50 Cubits
100 Cubits
50 Cubits
on the SOUTH
on the WEST
on the NORTH
on the EAST

making a total of 300 Cubits around the court.
This curtain of fine linen which was hung about the court 300 cubits in Length,  hung 5 Cubits high,  making a total of 1500
SQUARE CUBITS  of surface area

Symbolizing the righteousness of the law for the period of 1500 years from the giving of the Law on Sinai until the death of Jesus.

It hung upon

60 pillars 10 x 6 = 60 judgment against man
20 pillars on each side 2 x 10 = 20 witness of judgment
10 pillars on each end 10 judgment

The curtain was too high for natural man to see over - it shuts believers in, unbelievers out.
John 6:39; 3:36; I Corinthians 2:14; II Corinthians 4:34; John 10:28,29.

There was no access through this hanging.

It speaks of the impossibility of man to see and discern the things of God.
Man is utterly barred out from the presence of God.
Israel could approach God only through the Gate.
Sinful man only through Jesus Christ - by the blood of Christ we are brought nigh.
Ephesians 2:11-18.

The same height all around

Sets forth the fact that God’s standard of holiness is the same for all.
That standard is Jesus Christ Himself.   
Romans 8:29; I John 2:6

Suspended by hooks or rings of silver. Luke 15:22; Ephesians 1:13

The Pillars

The white court was held up by the use of pillars.  These pillars were made of shittim wood.  The Acacia tree is never known to grow straight,  but rather is consistently gnarled and twisted.

Oh how much this is like humanity! Without God to keep us straight, we would go astray into knots and grotesque designs that can only be shaped that way because of sin.

God chose this kind of wood to be used.
The Acacia wood grows close grained and is very hare.  No doubt it took something to process this wood to be used for the pillars.

And though we are chosen of God, we do not readily respond to the processing necessary to become the place of His sanctuary.

It is also inspiring to note how the Acacia tree is not readily attacked by insects.

Let us praise God for the resultant power that Christ gives at Salvation.

Upon the Pillars of Acacia wood was hung the white linen cloth;

So are we clothed with the purity and righteousness of Jesus Christ.
You see,  there is a glorious working together with Christ and His Church.
Without His righteousness,  we are nothing, and yet,  without the Pillars to up hold the Court, it could not have stood before the world.
The Pillars were the only means of upholding the Court.

The Pillars of the Court stood at a distance apart from each other.

So we as Christians go about our daily task - some to one type of work, others to another type- all of us in our various positions in life; and yes, we often even stand alone.

The Silver Fillet

A silver fillet jointed all the Pillars of the Tabernacle together as One even though they did stand apart.
The fillet was a thin wire-like silver cord, which ran completely around the Court and was attached to each pillar.

Oh the significance of this spiritual lesson!
Listen, although there is a separation, physically, from each other; yet there is a TIE THAT JOINS SPIRITUALLY AND BINDS EVERY CHILD OF GOD WITH CHRISTIAN LOVE!
There is a silver thread of redemption, that joins every member of the Body of Christ-a spiritual force that cannot be readily broken. Let us remember that the silver of which the fillet cord was made, is a type of redemption.

The Brass Sockets

On the bottom of each Pillar of the Court, was a Brass Socket, and on top was a Silver Chapiter.
The Chapiter or Capitaol, is the architectural finish of the pillars on the top.
Both on the inside and the outside of the Court, the pillars were also held in place by Goat’s hair cord.
The cord was fastened into the ground by means of a brass pin, and into the pillar by means of a silver hook.

Silver tops and fillets speak of Atonement, which is a covering for sin.
It speaks of God’s rich Grace in providing an Atonement. (Exodus 30:15,16; Hebrews 2:9)
Price the same for all.  God looking down from heaven saw the chapiters of silver which were on top of the pillars of brass.
He sees Jesus Christ’s atonement work today on our behalf and our judgment for sin is passed.

The Pins and Cords

Pins of  Brass-tested materials-would not rust,  elements had no effect upon them.
They were the things by which the fence was held or anchored

JESUS is our Anchor!

These Brass Pins or nails are a symbol of Christ

for He too, is called a Nail is Isaiah 22:20-24.
Verse 25 is referring to another nail who was in a sure place, but who would fall and Christ, the
TRUE and ABIDING Nail would fill His place. Now we know that this particular reference here in Isaiah is made to Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, but the nature of this reference is made concerning Jesus.
The name Eliakim means “raised up by God”, or “God is setting up”, and “God will establish”.
The key to the house of David is to be laid upon His shoulder.   Revelation 3:7  will verify that Jesus is the Eliakim or the one that was raised up by God to set upon His Father’s throne.
The sure place where the Nail is to be fastened is the throne of David in Jerusalem, and all the glory of the Father’s house will be hung upon Him.

As perfect as the pins were; as valuable as they were to the Tabernacle; if they had been left lying on top of the ground, they would have been absolutely useless. The FACT that they were BURIED DEEP in the EARTH, made the structure secure.

The perfection and sinlessness of Jesus Christ alone, could NEVER make the believers secure;
but the FACT that Christ died and was Buried three days in the earth, and rose again, causes our hopes of heaven to remain secure.

Now speaking of the Cords.
Cords of Linen - fastened to the pillars and then to the pins.
They were drawn tightly over the Tabernacle and fastened to the pins. This made the Tabernacle secure.

The cords picture to us the drawing power of God.
In Hosea 11:4 we find that the cords symbolize the love of God which draws men and women unto Himself. “I drew them with Cords of a man, with Bands of Love.”
In II Corinthians 5:14 Paul says, “The love of God constraineth us”.
See also John 12:32,33. We find in the original that constrain in this place means “to hold together.

Pins were useless without cords



The Gate of the Court

We saw that the wall of the court represented man barred our from the presence of God because he failed to produce the practical righteousness which God demanded under the law.
Man’s sinfulness and weakness makes it humanly impossible for him to produce the required righteousness and the claims are too lofty and high for sinful man to scale them in his own strength and on the ground of his own merit.
But in the Tabernacle we fine one Gate that led the way into the sacred enclosure.
Apart from this there was no entrance into the Court and no hope of access to God.
So today there is only one access to God and that is by the way of the True Gate which is Jesus Christ.

Before we go further let us compare the names given to the different entrances that we will study in the Tabernacle.

1. Gate The entrance to the Court
2. Door The entrance to the Holy Place
3. Veil The entrance to the Holy of Holies

Keep this distinction well in mind.
Jesus said,  “I am the way,  the truth,  and the life.”

1. Gate is the WAY
2. Door is the TRUTH
3. Veil is the LIFE

The Gate was on the East side where the first rays of morning light will shine.

This is a type of the Light of God, shining at the foot of the Cross were the entrance to the Court is, lighting the way to Salvation.

As we enter the Gate; the first thing we see is the pile of ashes on the East Side of the altar. Lev. 1:16.

This is the sign of accomplished redemption.

The Gate stood at the Eastern end of the court

being 20 Cubits wide
having 4 Pillars
and 3 Openings
each opening being 6 Cubits Wide with the allowance of ½ Cubit for each pillar

It hung on Four Pillars:

1. Matthew Jews King and Messiah
2. Mark Romans Servant
3. Luke Greeks Perfect Man
4. John Saints Savior

These 4 pillars speak of the Cleansing Power of the Blood of Jesus that flowed from His first 4 wounds, those in His hands and feet.
These 4 wounds gave forth blood to the cleansing of those who were under the Law, for as it is written in Galatians 4:4,5 “For when the fullness of time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”
Now when Jesus had fulfilled His ministry of suffering, He said, “It is Finished,” thus signifying that He had fulfilled the very demands of the Law for man.


When Josephus, both here and chap. 6 sect. 4, supposes the tabernacle to have been parted into three parts, he seems to esteem the bare entrance to be a third division, distinct from the holy and the most holy places; and this the rather, because in the temple afterward there was a real distinct third part, which was called the Porch; otherwise Josephus would contradict his own description of the tabernacle, which gives us a particular account of no more than two parts.
When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it shewed that God had made the universe of four [elements;] and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 
(Antiquities of the Jews Book III Pg. 75 Josephus in Types)


End of Lesson Five


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