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The Gospel To Israel
Book 1

Isaiah 2:1-3:26


Isaiah 2:1
From the Tanakh
(1)  The word that Isaiah son of Amoz prophesied concerning Judah and Jerusalem.

From the NKJV

(9)  The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.

The Way of General Judgment;
or the Course of Israel from False Glory to the True
Chapters 2 - 4

The limits of this address are very obvious.  The end of chapter 4 connects itself with the beginning of chapter 2,  so as to form a circle.  After various alternations of admonition,  reproach,  and threatening,  the prophet reaches at last the object of  the promise with which he started. Chapter 5,  on the other hand,  commences afresh with a parable.
It forms an independent address,  although it is included,  along with the previous chapters,  under the heading in Isaiah 2:1: "The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw over Judah and Jerusalem."

The prophet describes what he here says concerning Judah and Jerusalem as "the word which he saw."
When men speak to one another,  the words are not seen,  but heard.
But when God spoke to the prophet,  it was in a super sensuous way,  and the prophet saw it.
The mind indeed has no more eyes than ears;  but a mind qualified to perceive what is super sensuous is altogether eye.

The manner in which Isaiah commences this second address is altogether unparalleled.  There is no other example of a prophecy beginning with  wŞhaayaah  (days to come).
And it is very easy to discover the reason why.  The prophet therefore commences with  "and";  and it is from what follows,  not from what goes before,  that we learn that hayah is used in a future sense.
But this is not the only strange thing.  It is also an unparalleled occurrence,  for a prophetic address,  which runs as this does through all the different phases of  the prophetic discourses generally  (viz., exhortationreproof, threatening, and promise),  to commence with a promise

Isaiah 2:2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(2)  In the days to come, For in the last days Latter days
The Mount of the Lord’s House
Shall stand firm above the mountains
And tower above the hills;
And all the nations
Shall gaze on it with joy.   Turn to worship upon it.

From the NKJV

(2)  Now it shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the LORD's house shall be established on the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow to it.

The expression  "the last days"  (acharith hayyamim,  "the end of  the days"),  which does not occur anywhere else in Isaiah.    It was the  last time  in its most literal and purest sense,  commencing with the beginning of  the New Testament aeon,  and terminating at its close.

The prophet here predicted that the mountain that bore the temple of  Jehovah,  and therefore was already in dignity the most exalted of  all mountains,  would one day tower in actual height above all the high places of the earth.
The basaltic mountains of  Bashan, which rose up in bold peaks and columns,  might now look down with scorn and contempt upon the small limestone hill which Jehovah had chosen (Ps 68:16); but this was an incongruity which the last times would remove,  by making the outward correspond to the inward,  the appearance to the reality and the intrinsic worth.

Psalm 68:16
Why do you fume with envy,  you mountains of many peaks?
This is the mountain which God desires to dwell in;
Yes, the LORD will dwell in it forever.

That this is the prophet's meaning is confirmed by Ezekiel 40:2,  where the temple mountain looks gigantic to the prophet,  and also by Zechariah 14:10,  where all Jerusalem is described as towering above the country round about,  which would one day become a plain.
The question how this can possibly take place in time,  since it presupposes a complete subversion of  the whole of  the existing order of  the earth's surface,  is easily answered.  The prophet saw

the new Jerusalem of  the last days on this side, and
the new Jerusalem of  the new earth on the other (Rev 21:10),
blended as it were together,  and did not distinguish the one from the other.
But whilst we thus avoid all unwarrantable spiritualizing,  it still remains a question what meaning the prophet attached to the word b'rosh ("at the top").
Did he mean that Moriah would one day stand upon the top of the mountains that surrounded it (as in Ps 72:16)?
Or that it would stand at their head  (as in 1 Kings 21:9,12; Amos 6:7; Jer 31:7)?

It is the temple of  Jehovah which,  being thus rendered visible to nations afar off,  exerts such magnetic attraction,  and with such success.
Just as at a former period men had been separated and estranged from one another in the plain of  Shinar (Babylonia),  and thus different nations had first arisen;
so would the nations at a future period assemble together on the mountain of  the house of Jehovah,  and there,  as members of one family,  live together in amity again.
And as Babel (confusion, as its name signifies) was the place whence the stream of nations poured into all the world;
so would Jerusalem (the city of peace) become the place into which the stream of nations would empty itself, and where all would be reunited once more.

At the present time there was only one people - Israel - which made pilgrimages to Zion on the great festivals,  but it would be very different then.

Isaiah 2:3
From the Tanakh From the Targum
(3)  And the many peoples shall go and say:  “Come, Let us go up to the Mount of the Lord,  
To the House of the God of Jacob; the house of the Shekinah of the God of Jacob
That He may instruct us in His ways,  
And that we may walk in His paths.” The teaching of his law
For instruction shall come forth from Zion,
The word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

From the NKJV

(3)  Many people shall come and say,
"Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob;  He will teach us His ways, and we shall walk in His paths."  For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

This is their signal for starting,  and their song by the way ( Zechariah 8:21-22).

Zechariah 8:21-22
The inhabitants of one city shall go to another, saying,  "Let us continue to go and pray before the LORD,  and seek the LORD of hosts.  I myself will go also."  Yes, many peoples and strong nations shall come to seek the LORD of  hosts in Jerusalem, and to pray before the LORD.    (NKJV)

What urges them on is the desire for salvation.
Desire for salvation expresses itself  in the name they give to the point towards which they are traveling:  they call  Moriah  "the mountain of Jehovah,"  and the temple upon it  "the house of the God of Jacob."
Through frequent use,  Israel had become the popular name for the people of  God;  but the name they employ is the choicer name Jacob,  which is the name of  affection in the mouth of  Micah,  of  whose style we are also reminded by the expression "many peoples" (ammim rabbim).

Desire for salvation expresses itself in the object of  their journey;  they wish Jehovah to teach them  "out of His ways," - a rich source of instruction with which they desire to be gradually entrusted.
The "ways of Jehovah" are the ways that God Himself takes,  and by which men are led by Him - the revealed ordinances of  His will and action.
Desire for salvation also expresses itself  in the resolution with which they set out: they not only wish to learn,
but are resolved to act according to what they learn.

"We will walk in His paths:"   The words supposed to be spoken by the multitude of  heathen going up to Zion terminate here.  The principal emphasis is upon the expressions "from Zion" and "from Jerusalem."
It is a triumphant utterance of the sentiment that "salvation is of the Jews" (John 4:22  "...for salvation is from the Jews.  NIV).

From Zion-Jerusalem there would go forth  torah, i.e.,  instruction as to the questions which man has to put to God,  and debar Jehovah,  the word of  Jehovah,  which created the world at first,  and by which it is spiritually created anew.
Whatever promotes the true prosperity of  the nations comes from Zion-Jerusalem.

There the nations assemble together;  they take it thence to their own homes,  and thus Zion-Jerusalem becomes the fountain of universal good.
For from the time that Jehovah made choice of  Zion,  the holiness of  Sinai was transferred to Zion (Ps 68:17), which now presented the same aspect as Sinai had formerly done,  when God invested it with holiness by appearing there in the midst of myriads of  angels.

What had been commenced at Sinai for Israel would be completed at Zion for the entire world.
This was fulfilled on that day of  Pentecost,  when the disciples,  the first-fruits of the church of  Christ,  proclaimed the torah of  Zion, i.e., the gospel, in the languages of all the world.
It was fulfilled, as Theodoret observes,  in the fact that the word of  the gospel,  rising from Jerusalem  "as from a fountain,"  flowed through the whole of  the known world.
But these fulfillments were only preludes to a conclusion that is still to be looked for in the future.  For what is promised in the following verse is still altogether unfulfilled.

Isaiah 2:4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX
(4)  Thus He will judge among the nations  
And arbitrate for the many peoples, shall rebuke many people
And they shall beat their swords into plowshares
And their spears into pruning hooks:
Nation shall not take up
Sword against nation;

From the NKJV

(4)  He shall judge between the nations, and rebuke many people;  they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks;  nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.

Since the nations commit themselves in this manner as pupils to the God of  revelation and the word of  His revelation,  He becomes the supreme judge and umpire among them.

If any dispute arise,  it is no longer settled by the compulsory force of  war
but by the word of God,  to which all bow with willing submission.

With such power as this in the peace-sustaining word of  God (Zech 9:10),  there is no more need for weapons of iron:  they are turned into the instruments of  peaceful employment,

into ittim (probably a synonym for ethim in 1 Sam 13:21 "The price was two thirds of a shekel for sharpening plowshares and mattocks, and a third of a shekel for sharpening forks and axes and for repointing goads."  NIV),  plough-knives or coulters,  which cut the furrows for the ploughshare to turn up,,
and  mazmeroth,  bills or pruning-hooks,  with which vines are pruned to increase their fruit-bearing power.

There is also no more need for military practice,  for there is no use in exercising one's self in what cannot be applied.  It is useless, and men dislike it.  There is peace,

not an armed peace,
but a full, true,  God-given and blessed peace.

Zechariah 9:10
I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim
And the horse from Jerusalem;
The battle bow shall be cut off.
He shall speak peace to the nations;
His dominion shall be 'from sea to sea,
And from the River to the ends of the earth.'


Next Section
Previous Section

This section is divided into four strophes (a rhythmic system composed of two or more lines repeated as a unit):

1. Isaiah 5-11 Israel turned to the ways of the Gentiles
2. Isaiah 12-17 Retribution in the Day of the Lord
3. Isaiah 18-19 Idols abolished by the Lord
4. Isaiah 20-22 Idols abolished by Israel

Isaiah 2:5
From the Tanakh From the Targum
(5)  O House of Jacob!
Come, let us walk
By the light of the Lord. In the teaching of the law of the Lord

From the NKJV

(5)  O house of Jacob, come and let us walk in the light of the LORD.

Isaiah presents himself  to his contemporaries with this older prophecy of the exalted and world-wide calling of  the people of Jehovah,  holds it up before them as a mirror.  This exhortation is formed under the influence of  the context,  from which verses. 2-4 are taken,  as we may see from Micah 4:5,   and also of the quotation itself.

Micah 4:5
For all people walk each in the name of his god,
But we will walk in the name of the LORD our God
Forever and ever.

With the words  "O house of Jacob"  he now turns to his people,  whom so glorious a future awaits,  because Jehovah has made it the scene of  His manifested presence and grace,  and summons them to walk in the light of such a God,  to whom all nations will press at the end of the days.

The summons,  "Come, let us walk,"  is the echo of verse 3,  "Come, let us go;"  and as Hitzig observes,  "Isaiah endeavors,  like Paul in Romans 11:14,  to stir up his countrymen to a noble jealousy,  by setting before them the example of the heathen."

The "light of Jehovah"  ('or Jehovah, in which the echo of  v'yorenu in v. 3 is hardly accidental;  - Prov 6:23)  is the knowledge of  Jehovah Himself,  as furnished by means of positive revelation,  His manifested love.
It was now high time to walk in the light of  Jehovah, i.e.,  to turn this knowledge into life,  and reciprocate this love;  and it was especially necessary to exhort Israel to this,  now that Jehovah had given up His people,  just because in their perverseness they had done the very opposite.  This mournful declaration,  which the prophet was obliged to make in order to explain his warning cry,  he changes into the form of a prayerful sigh.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Isaiah 2:6
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(6)  For you have forsaken [the ways of] your people, For he has forsaken his people Fear-Mighty
O House of Jacob!    
For they are full [of practices] from the East, their land is filled as at the beginning with divinations  
And of soothsaying like the Philistines;    
They abound in customs of the aliens. many strange children were born to them.  

From the NKJV

(6)  For You have forsaken Your people, the house of Jacob, because they are filled with eastern ways; they are soothsayers like the Philistines, and they are pleased with the children of  foreigners.

Here again we have  "for" (chi)  twice in succession;

the first giving the reason for the warning cry,
the second vindicating the reason assigned.

The words are addressed to Jehovah,  not to the people.
In Isa 2:9;  9:2,  and other passages,  the prophecy takes the form of a prayer.
Jehovah had put away His people, i.e., rejected them, and left them to themselves, for the following reasons:

1. They were filled with eastern ways
Because they were "full from the east" (mikkedem: denotes the source from which a person draws and fills himself,  Jer 51:34; Ezek 32:6), i.e.,  full of eastern manners and customs,  more especially of  idolatrous practices.
By "the east"  (kedem)  we are to understand Arabia as far as the peninsula of  Sinai,  and also the Aramaeans lands of  the Euphrates.
Under Uzziah and Jotham,  whose sway extended to Elath,  the seaport town of the Elanitic Gulf,  the influence of  the south-east predominated;
but under Ahaz and Hezekiah,  on account of their relations to Asshur,  Aram,  and Babylon,  that of the north-east.
2. Practiced divination like the Philistines
2 Kings 21:6
He sacrificed his own son in the fire, practiced sorcery and divination, and consulted mediums and spiritists. He did much evil in the eyes of the LORD, provoking him to anger.  (NIV)
3. Sons of strangers
The "sons of strangers" generally  (Isa 60:10; 61:5),  with a strong emphasis upon there unsanctified birth,  the heathenism inherited from their mother's womb.

Isaiah 2:7 & 8
From the Tanakh From the  LXX
(7)  Their land is full of silver and gold,
There is no limit to their treasures;
Their land is full of horses,
There is no limit to their chariots.
(8)  And their land is full of idols; is filled with abominations, even the works of their hands
They bow down to the work of their hands,
To what their own fingers have wrought.

From the NKJV

(7)  Their land is also full of silver and gold, and there is no end to their treasures;
Their land is also full of horses, and there is no end to their chariots.
(8)  Their land is also full of idols; they worship the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers have made.

He describes still further how the land of the people of  Jehovah,  in consequence of all this was crammed full of  objects of  luxury,  of self-confidence,  of estrangement from God.  The glory of  Solomon,  which revived under Uzziah's fifty-two years' reign,  and was sustained through Jotham's reign of  sixteen years,  carried with it the curse of  the law;  for the law of  the king,  in Deut 17:14 ff.,  prohibited the multiplying of  horses,  and also the accumulation of  gold and silver.  Standing armies,  and stores of  national treasures,  like everything else which ministers to carnal self-reliance were opposed to the spirit of  the theocracy.

Deuteronomy 17:14-20
When you enter the land the LORD your God is giving you and have taken possession of it and settled in it, and you say, "Let us set a king over us like all the nations around us,"  be sure to appoint over you the king the LORD your God chooses. He must be from among your own brothers.  Do not place a foreigner over you, one who is not a brother Israelite.  The king, moreover, must not acquire great numbers of horses for himself or make the people return to Egypt to get more of them, for the LORD has told you,  "You are not to go back that way again."  He must not take many wives, or his heart will be led astray. He must not accumulate large amounts of silver and gold.
When he takes the throne of his kingdom, he is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law, taken from that of the priests, who are Levites.  It is to be with him, and he is to read it all the days of his life so that he may learn to revere the LORD his God and follow carefully all the words of this law and these decrees  and not consider himself better than his brothers and turn from the law to the right or to the left. Then he and his descendants will reign a long time over his kingdom in Israel.    (NIV)

Nevertheless Judaea was immeasurably full of  such seductions to apostasy;  and not of  those alone,  but also of things which plainly revealed it, viz., of elilim, idols  (the same word is used in Lev 19:4; 26:1,  from elil,  vain or worthless;  it is therefore equivalent to "not-gods").

They worshipped the work of  "their own" hands,  what  "their own"  fingers had made:  two distributive singulars,  as in Isa 5:23,  the hands and fingers of every individual  (Micah 5:12-13, where the idols are classified).
The condition of  the land,  therefore,  was not only opposed to the law of the king,  but at variance with the Decalogue also. 

Micah 5:12-13
I will destroy your witchcraft
and you will no longer cast spells.
I will destroy your carved images
and your sacred stones from among you;
you will no longer bow down
to the work of your hands.

The existing glory was the most offensive caricature of  the glory promised to the nation;  for the people,  whose God was one day to become the desire and salvation of all nations,  had exchanged Him for the idols of the nations,  and was vying with them in the appropriation of  heathen religion and customs.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

How do the Jews see the last days or the days of  Messiah?
In order to express that the kingdom of  Messiah will be permanent,  and that the kingdom of  Israel will not be destroyed any more,  Isaiah says in Isa. 60:20  “For the sun shall not go down nor shall thy moon ever wane: For the Lord will be to thee an everlasting light; and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.” LXX

In metaphors like these,  which are intelligible to those who understand the context of the Scripture,  Isaiah continues to describe the details of  the exile,  the restoration,  and the removal of all sorrow,  and says:  “For as the new heaven and the new earth, which I make, shall remain in My presence, saith the Lord; so shall your seed and your name be established.” Isaiah 66:22 LXX

I will now describe the sequence of  the ideas,  and the order of  the verses in which these ideas are contained.
The prophet begins as follows:  “I recollected the loving kindness of the Lord – the mercies of the Lord in all those things which He reattributed for us. The Lord is a good judge to the house of Israel. He dealt with us according to His tender mercy and according to the abundance of His saving goodness,”  Isaiah 63:7 LXX.

Isaiah then gives:

1. An account of  God’s past kindness to us,  concluding with the words,
“It was not an ambassador nor a messenger;  but He Himself saved them.  Through His love and His indulgence to them,  He Himself redeemed them and took them up, and exalted them all the days of old.”   Isaiah 63:9 LXX
2. Next follows our rebellion:
“But they rebelled and provoked His holy spirit; so He became their enemy. He fought against them;” Isaiah 63:10 LXX
3. The dominion of our enemies over us:
“Our foes have trampled Your Sanctuary, Which Your holy people possessed but a little while. [That we may inherit a little of  Thy holy mountain.] we have become as a people You never ruled, To which Your name was never attached.” Isaiah 63:18,19 LXX
4. And the prophet’s prayer on our account:
“Be not angry with us to the uttermost; nor remember forever our sins: but, O, look down now upon us; for we are all Thy people.” Isaiah 64:9 LXX
5. The prophet then describes how we deserved these punishments, and how we were called to the truth but did not respond:
“I BECAME manifest to them who inquired not for Me; I was found by them who sought Me not. I said, Behold here I am, to the nation which did not invoke My name.” Isa. 65:1 LXX
6. Promises mercy and pardon:
“Thus saith the Lord: as when a good grape is found in the cluster, they will say, Destroy it not, for there is a blessing in it; so will I do for the sake of him who served Me; for his sake I will not destroy them all.” Isaiah 65:8 LXX
7. Predicts evil for our oppressors:
“Isa 65:13
Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: "Behold, My servants shall eat,  but you shall be hungry;  behold, My servants shall drink,  but you shall be thirsty;  behold, My servants shall rejoice,  but you shall be ashamed;"  Isaiah 65:13  NKJV
8. And moral improvement of our nation to such a degree that we shall be a blessing on the earth, and the previous troubles will be forgotten:
"You shall leave your name as a curse to My chosen;  for the Lord GOD will slay you,  and call His servants by another name;  so that he who blesses himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth;  and he who swears in the earth shall swear by the God of truth;  because the former troubles are forgotten, and because they are hidden from My eyes.
For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former shall not be remembered or come to mind.  But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create;  for behold, I create Jerusalem as a rejoicing,  and her people a joy.   I will rejoice in Jerusalem,  and joy in My people; the voice of weeping shall no longer be heard in her,  nor the voice of crying.  Isaiah 65:15-19  NKJV

The words – New Heavens and New Earth – The explanation,
 “I create Jerusalem a rejoicing,  and her people a joy”    (Moses Maimonides Hebrew theologian)

Isaiah 2:9 - 11
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(9)  But man shall be humbled, the mean man bowed down  
And mortal brought low- the great man was humbled The strength of men shall become feeble
(10)  Go deep into the rock,
Bury yourselves in the ground,
Before the terror of the Lord   before the Terrible One, the Lord,
And His dread majesty! Of the glory of his might, when he shall arise to strike terribly the earth  
(11)  Man’s haughty look shall be
brought low,
For the eyes of the Lord are high, but man is low  
And the pride of mortals shall be humbled.
None but the Lord shall be
Exalted in that day.

From the NKJV

(9)  People bow down, and each man humbles himself; therefore do not forgive them.
(10)  Enter into the rock, and hide in the dust, from the terror of the LORD and the glory of His majesty.
(11)  The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.

It was a state ripe for judgment,  from which,  therefore,  the prophet could at once proceed,  without any further preparation,  to the proclamation of  judgment itself.

The consecutive futures depict the judgment,  as one that would follow by inward necessity from the worldly and ungodly glory of  the existing state of  things.  The future is frequently used in this way  (for example, in Isa 9:7 ff.).
It was a judgment,  which small and great brought down the people in all its classes,  down from their false eminence.

"Men" and "lords" (âdâm and ish, as in  Isaiah 5:15 - men who were lost in the crowd,  and men who rose above it - all of them the judgment would throw down to the ground,  and that without mercy (Rev 6:15).

Isaiah 5:15
People shall be brought down,
Each man shall be humbled,
And the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled.   (NKJV)

Revelations 6:15-17
And the kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the commanders, the mighty men, every slave and every free man, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains,  and said to the mountains and rocks, "Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb!  For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand?"    (NKJV)

The prophet expresses the conviction  (al as in 2 Kings 6:27)  that on this occasion God neither could nor would take away the sin by forgiving it.  There was nothing left for them,  therefore,  but to carry out the command of  the prophet.  The glorious nation would hide itself most ignominiously,  when the only true glory of  Jehovah,  which had been rejected by it,  was manifested in judgment.  They would conceal themselves in holes of the rocks,  as if before a hostile army  (Judg 6:2; 1 Sam 13:6; 14:11),  and bury themselves with their faces in the sand,  as if before the fatal simoom of the desert,  that they might not have to bear this intolerable sight.

2 Kings 6:27-28
And he said, "If the LORD does not help you, where can I find help for you?"     (NKJV)

Judges 6:1-2
Then the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD. So the LORD delivered them into the hand of Midian for seven years,  and the hand of Midian prevailed against Israel. Because of the Midianites, the children of Israel made for themselves the dens, the caves, and the strongholds which are in the mountains.     (NKJV)

1 Samuel 13:6
When the men of Israel saw that they were in danger (for the people were distressed), then the people hid in caves, in thickets, in rocks, in holes, and in pits.     (NKJV)

And when Jehovah manifested Himself in this way in the fiery glance of judgment, the result summed up in v. 11 must follow.  The result of  the process of judgment is expressed in perfects:  Jehovah "is exalted," i.e., shows Himself as exalted, whilst the haughty conduct of  the people is brought down,  and the pride of  the lords is bowed down (shach = shâchach, Job 9:13  "God will not withdraw His anger,  the allies of the proud lie prostrate beneath Him"  NKJV).

The first  strophe  of  the proclamation of  judgment appended to the prophetic  saying in vv. 2-4 is here brought to a close.
The second strophe reaches to v. 17,  where verse 11  is repeated as a concluding verse.

Isaiah 2:12
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(12)  For the Lord of Hosts has ready a day For the day of the Lord of hosts shall be upon every one that is  
Against all that is proud and arrogant,   the proud and haughty, and upon all the strong
Against all that is lofty – so that it is brought low:    

From the NKJV

(12)  For the day of the LORD of hosts shall come upon everything proud and lofty, upon everything lifted up and it shall be brought low —

The day of the Lord

The expression  "that day"  of verse 11 suggests the inquiry,  what day is referred to?
The prophet answers this question in verse 12.

There is to Jehovah a day,  which already exists as a finished divine thought in that wisdom by which the course of  history is guided,  the secret of which He revealed to the prophets,  who from the time of  Obadiah and Joel downwards proclaimed that day with one uniform watchword.
But when the time appointed for that day should arrive,  it would pass out of  the secret of  eternity into the history of  time - a day of  world-wide judgment,  which would pass,  through the omnipotence with which Jehovah rules over the higher as well as lower spheres of  the whole creation,  upon all worldly glory,  and it would be brought low (shaphel).

This is the first of  twenty one occurrences of  “yowm Yahweh” - the Day of  Jehovah

1. Isaiah 2:12 For the day of the LORD of hosts shall come upon everything proud and lofty
2. Isaiah 13:6 Wail, for the day of the LORD is at hand!
3. Isaiah 13:9 Behold, the day of the LORD comes,
4. Isaiah 34.8 For it is the day of the LORD's vengeance
5. Jeremiah 46:10 For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance
6. Ezekiel 13:5 You have not gone up into the gaps to build a wall for the house of Israel to stand in battle on the day of the LORD
7. Ezekiel 30:13 Even the day of the LORD is near
8. Joel 1:15 For the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as destruction from the Almighty
9. Joel 2:1 For the day of the LORD is coming, for it is at hand
10. Joel 2:11 For the day of the LORD is great and very terrible; who can endure it?
11. Joel 2:31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD
12. Joel 3:14 For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision
13. Amos 5:18 Woe to you who desire the day of the LORD!
14. Amos 5:18 For what good is the day of the LORD to you?
15. Amos 5:20 Is not the day of the LORD darkness, and not light
16. Obadiah 15 For the day of the LORD upon all the nations is near
17. Zephaniah 1:7 For the day of the LORD is at hand
18. Zephaniah 1:14 The great day of the LORD is near
19. Zephaniah 1:14 The noise of the day of the LORD is bitter
20. Zechariah 14:1 Behold, the day of the LORD is coming
21. Malachi 4:5 Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD

In the New Testament there are 5 occurrences of the Greek equivalent:  "heeméran Kuríou"

1. Acts 2:20 Peter, quoting Joel 2:31 in his great sermon on the day of Pentecost:
The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.
2. 1 Corinthians 5:5 Deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.
3. 2 Corinthians 1:14 As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye also are ours in the day of  the Lord Jesus.
4. 1 Thessalonians 5:2-3 For you yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night.
5. 2 Peter 3:10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night

Isaiah 2:13-16
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(13)  Against all the cedars of Lebanon,   the strong and mighty kings of the nations,
Tall and stately,    
And all the oaks of Bashan;   upon all the princes (or tyrants) of the provinces
(14) Against all the high mountains
And all the lofty hills
(15)  Against every soaring tower   upon all that dwell in lofty towers
And every mighty wall;   that abide within fenced walls
(16)  Against all the ships of  Tarshish upon every ship of the sea, and upon every display of fine ships  
And all the gallant barks.   All that go down in ships of the sea, and that abide in beautiful palaces

From the NKJV

(13)  Upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan;
(14)  Upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up
(15)  Upon every high tower, and upon every fortified wall;
(16)  Upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all the beautiful sloops.

The prophet then proceeds to enumerate all the high things upon which that day would fall,  arranging them two and two,  and binding them in pairs.  The day of  Jehovah comes,  as the first two pairs affirm,  upon everything lofty in nature.  But wherefore upon all this majestic beauty of nature?
Is all this merely figurative?
Knobel regards it as merely a figurative description of  the grand buildings of  the time of Uzziah and Jotham,   in the erection of  which wood had been used from Lebanon as well as from Bashan,  on the western slopes of  which the old shady oaks (sindiân and ballűt) are flourishing still.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

But the idea that trees can be used to signify the houses built with the good obtained from them,  is one that cannot be sustained from Isa 9:9-10,  where the reference is not to houses built of sycamore and cedar wood,  but to trunks of  trees of  the king mentioned;  nor even from Nahum 2:3-4, where habberoshim refers to the fir lances which are brandished about in haughty thirst for battle. So again mountains and hills cannot denote the castles and fortifications built upon them, more especially as these are expressly mentioned in v. 15 in the most literal terms.

In order to understand the prophet, we must bear in mind what the Scriptures invariably assume, from their first chapter to the very close, namely, that -
The totality of  nature is bound up with man in one common history
Man and the totality of  nature are inseparably connected together as center and circumference
This circumference is affected by the sin which proceeds from man, as well as by the anger or the mercy which proceeds from God to man
The judgments of God,  as the history of  the nations proves,  involve in fellow-suffering even that part of the creation which is not free
This participation in the  "corruption"  (phthora) and  "glory"  (doxa) of  humanity will come out with peculiar distinctness and force at the close of the world's history,  in a manner corresponding to the commencement
The world in its present condition needs a  palingenesia,  or regeneration,  quite as much as the corporeal nature of man,  before it can become an object of  good pleasure on the part of God

Nahum 2:3-4
The shields of his mighty men are made red,  the valiant men are in scarlet.  The chariots come with flaming torches
in the day of his preparation,  and the spears are brandished.  The chariots rage in the streets,  they jostle one another in the broad roads;  they seem like torches,  they run like lightning.     (NKJV)

We cannot be surprised,  therefore, that,  in accordance with this fundamental view of the Scriptures,  when the judgment of God fell upon Israel,  it should also be described as

going down to the land of  Israel,
               and as
overthrowing not only the false glory of  the nation itself,  but everything glorious in the surrounding nature,  which had been made to minister to its national pride and love of  show,  and to which its sin adhered in many different ways.

What the prophet foretold began to be fulfilled even in the Assyrian wars.

1. The cedar woods of  Lebanon were unsparingly destroyed
2. The heights and valleys of the land were trodden down and laid waste
3. The period of  the great empires that commenced with Tiglath-pileser, the Holy Land was reduced to a shadow of its former promised beauty

The glory of nature is followed by what is lofty and glorious in the world of  men,  such as magnificent fortifications,  grand commercial buildings,  and treasures that minister to the lust of the eye.  It was by erecting fortifications for offence and defense,  both lofty and steep that Uzziah and Jotham especially endeavored to serve Jerusalem and the land at large.

The chronicler relates,  with reference to Uzziah, in 2 Chron 26, that he built strong towers above  "the corner-gate,  the valley-gate,  and the southern point of  the cheese makers' hollow,"  and fortified these places,  which had probably been till that time the weakest points in Jerusalem;  also that he built towers in the desert  (probably in the desert between Beersheba and Gaza,  to increase the safety of the land,  and the numerous flocks which were pastured in the shephelah, - the western portion of  southern Palestine). 
With regard to Jotham,  it is related in both the book of  Kings (2 Kings 15:32 ff.)  and the Chronicles,  that he built the upper gate of  the temple;  and in the Chronicles (2 Chron 27) that he fortified the 'Ofel, - the southern spur of  the temple hill,  still more strongly,  and built cities on the mountains of  Judah,  and erected castles and towers in the forests  (to watch for hostile attacks and ward them off).

Hezekiah also distinguished himself  by building enterprises of  this kind (2 Chron 32:27-30).
But the allusion to the ships of  Tarshish takes us to the times of  Uzziah and Jotham,  and not to those of  Hezekiah (as Ps 48:7 does to the time of Jehoshaphat);  for the seaport town of  Elath,  which was recovered by Uzziah,  was lost again to the kingdom of  Judah during the reign of  Ahaz.
Jewish ships sailed from this Elath (Ailath)  through the Red Sea and round the coast of  Africa to the harbor of  Tartessus,  the ancient Phoenician emporium of  the maritime region watered by the Baetis (Guadalquivir),  which abounded in silver,  and then returned through the Pillars of  Hercules  (the Straits of Gibraltar: vid. Duncker, Gesch. i. 312-315).

It was to these Tartessus vessels that the expression  "ships of Tarshish"  primarily referred,  though it was afterwards probably applied to mercantile ships in general.
The following expression,  "works of curiosity"  (sechiyyoth hachemdah),  is taken in far too restricted a sense by those who limit it,  to the ships already spoken of,  or understand it,  as Gesenius does,  as referring to beautiful flags.  Jerome's rendering is correct:  "et super omne quod visu pulcrum est" (and upon everything beautiful to look at);  seciyyâh,  from sâcâh,  "to look"  (see Job, p. 468),  refers to  sight generally.  The reference therefore is to all kinds of  works of art,  whether in sculpture or paintings (mascith is used of  both),  which delighted the observer by their imposing,  tasteful appearance.
Possibly,  however,  there is a more special reference to curiosities of  art and nature,  which were brought by the trading vessels from foreign lands.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Isaiah 2:17
From the Tanakh From the Targum
(17)  Then man’s haughtiness shall be humbled  
And the pride of man brought low. The strength of men shall become feeble
None but the Lord shall be
Exalted in that day.

From the NKJV

(17)  The loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be brought low;  the LORD alone will be exalted in that day

Verse 17 closes the second strophe of  the proclamation of  judgment appended to the earlier prophetic word:
The closing refrain only varies a little from verse 11.  The subjects of the verbs are transposed.

Isaiah 2:18
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(18)  As for idols, they shall vanish completely. They shall hide all idols made with hands  

From the NKJV

(18)  But the idols He shall utterly abolish.

The closing refrain of  the next two strophes is based upon the concluding clause of  verse 10.
The proclamation of  judgment turns now to the elilim,  which, as being at the root of all the evil,  occupied the lowest place in the things of  which the land was full  (vv. 7, 8).
In a short verse of one clause consisting of only three words,  their future is declared as it were with a lightning-flash.

The translation shows the shortness of  the verse,  but not the significant synallage numeri.
The idols are one and all a mass of  nothingness,  which will be reduced to absolute annihilation: they will vanish câlil, i.e., either

"they will utterly perish" (funditus peribunt),
or, as câlil is not used adverbially in any other passage, "they will all perish" (tota peribunt, Judg 20:40) -
their images,  their worship,  even their names and their memory (Zech 13:2).

Zechariah 13:2
"It shall be in that day,"  says the LORD of hosts,  "that I will cut off the names of  the idols from the land,  and they shall no longer be remembered.  I will also cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to depart from the land.  (NKJV)

Isaiah 2:19
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(19)  And men shall enter caverns in the rock having carried them into the caves…the clefts of the rocks  
And hollows in the ground –   the holes of the dust
Before the terror of the Lord
And His dread majesty,
When He comes forth to overawe the earth. Arise to strike terribly the earth Destroy – wicked

From the NKJV

(19)  They shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, from the terror of the LORD and the glory of His majesty, when He arises to shake the earth mightily.

What the idolaters themselves will do when Jehovah has so completely deprived their idols of  all their divinity,  is then described in verse 19.  Meârâh  is a natural cave,  and  mechillah  a subterraneous excavation:  this is apparently the distinction between the two synonyms.  "To put the earth in terror:”
Thus the judgment would fall upon the earth without any limitation,

upon men universally  (compare the word hâ-âdâm in verse 20,  which is scarcely ever applied to a single individual  (Josh 14:15),  excepting,  of course,  the first man,  but generally to men,  or to the human race)
and upon the totality of  nature as interwoven in the history of man - one complete whole,  in which sin,  and therefore wrath,  had gained the upper hand.

When Jehovah rose up, i.e.,  stood up from His heavenly throne,  to reveal the glory manifested in heaven,  and turn its judicial fiery side towards the sinful earth,  the earth would receive such a shock as would throw it into a state resembling the chaos of  the beginning.  We may see very clearly from Rev 6:15,  where this description is borrowed, that the prophet is here describing the last judgment, although from a national point of view and bounded by a national horizon
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Isaiah 2:20
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(20)  On that day, men shall fling away,   shall the sons of men cast away their idols of silver
To the flying foxes and the bats,
The idols of silver
And the idols of gold
Which they made for worshiping. In order to worship vanities and bats Idols and images

From the NKJV

(20)  In that day a man will cast away his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which they made, each for himself to worship, to the moles and bats

Verse 20 forms the commencement to the fourth strophe.
But are we necessarily to assume that they would throw their idols into lumber-rooms,  and not hide them in holes and crevices out of doors?
The mole,  the shrew-mouse,  and the bat,  whose name (atalleph) is regarded by Schultens as a compound word (atal-eph,  night-bird),  are generically related,  according to both ancient and modern naturalists.
Bats are to birds what moles are to the smaller beasts of prey (vid. Levysohn, Zoology des Talmud, p. 102).

The idolaters,  convinced of  the worthlessness of  their idols through the judicial interposition of God,  and enraged at the disastrous manner in which they had been deceived,  would throw away with curses the images of  gold and silver which artists'  hands had made according to their instructions,  and hide them in the holes of  bats and in
mole-hills,  to conceal them from the eyes of  the Judge,  and then take refuge there themselves after ridding themselves of  this useless and damnable burden.

Isaiah 2:21-22
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(21)  And they shall enter the clefts in the rocks caverns of the solid rock  
And the crevices in the cliffs,    
Before the terror of the Lord   before the Terrible One, the Lord,
And His dread majesty,   from the brightness of his glory
When He comes forth to overawe the earth. Shall arise to strike terribly the earth Wicked
(22)  Oh, cease to glorify man,   Cease ye to be subject to man
Who has only a breath in his nostrils!   When he maketh an idol…of the spirit of life: for to day he is alive
For by what does he merit esteem?   To-morrow he is not, and as nothing is he accounted.

From the NKJV

(21)  To go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the crags of the rugged rocks, from the terror of the LORD and the glory of His majesty, when He arises to shake the earth mightily.
(22)  Sever yourselves from such a man, whose breath is in his nostrils; for of what account is he?

Thus ends the fourth strophe of  this  "dies irae, dies illa,"  which is appended to the earlier prophetic word.
But there follows,  as an Epiphonema,  this nota bene in verse 22.  But if we look backwards and forwards,  it is impossible to mistake the meaning of  the verse,  which must be regarded not only as the resultant of  what precedes it,  but also as the transition to what follows.

It is preceded by the prediction of  the utter demolition of  everything which ministers to the pride and vain confidence of  men; and in Isaiah 3:1 ff.  the same prediction is resumed,  with a more special reference to the Jewish state,  from which Jehovah is about to take away every prop,  so that it shall utterly collapse.

Accordingly the prophet exhorts,  in verse 22,  to a renunciation of  trust in man,  and everything belonging to him,  just as in Psalm 118:8-9;  146:3,  and Jeremiah 17:5.  The exhortation is both friendly and urgent:  from regard to yourselves,  for your own good,  for your own salvation,  desist from man,  i.e.,  from your confidence in him,  in whose nose is a breath,  a breath of life,  which God gave to him,  and can take back as soon as He will  (Job 34:14;   Psalm 104:29).

Psalm 118:8-9
It is better to trust in the LORD than to put confidence in man.
It is better to trust in the LORD than to put confidence in princes.    (NKJV)

Psalm 146:3
Do not put your trust in princes,  nor in a son of man, in whom there is no help.    (NKJV)

Jeremiah 17:5

Thus says the LORD:  "Cursed is the man who trusts in man and makes flesh his strength,  whose heart departs from the LORD.    (NKJV)

Upon the breath, which passes out and in through his nose,  his whole earthly existence is suspended;  and this,  when once lost,  is gone for ever  (Job 7:7  "Oh, remember that my life is a breath!").
It is upon this breath,  therefore,  that all the confidence placed in man must rest - a bad soil and foundation!
Under these conditions,  and with this liability to perish in a moment,  the worth of  man as a ground of  confidence is really nothing.
This thought is expressed here in the form of a question:

At (for) what is he estimated, or to be estimated?
Cannot be answered by any positive definition of value.
The worth of man, regarded in himself, and altogether apart from God, is really nothing.

The proclamation of  judgment pauses,  but only for the purpose of gathering fresh strength.

The prophet has foretold in four strophes the judgment of  God upon every exalted thing in the cosmos that has fallen away from communion with God,  just as Amos commences his book with a round of  judgments,  which are uttered in seven strophes of  uniform scope,  bursting like seven thunder-claps upon the nations of the existing stage of history.  The seventh stroke falls upon Judah,  over which the thunderstorm rests after finding such abundant booty.
And in the same manner Isaiah,  in the instance before us,  reduces the universal proclamation of  judgment to one more especially affecting Judah and Jerusalem.

The current of  the address breaks through the bounds of  the strophe;  and the exhortation in Isaiah 2:22 not to trust in man,  the reason for which is assigned in what precedes,  also forms a transition from the universal proclamation of  judgment to the more special one in Isaiah 3:1,  where the prophet assigns a fresh ground for the exhortation.


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Isaiah 3:1
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(1) For lo!   For, behold, the ruler of the world
The Sovereign Lord of Hosts
Will remove from Jerusalem and from Judah
Prop and stay, the mighty man and mighty woman Stay and support
Every prop of food the strength of bread, The whole stay of food
And every prop of water: and the strength of water, The whole support of drink

From the NKJV

(1) For behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, takes away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stock and the store, the whole supply of bread and the whole supply of water;

haa-'Adown Yahweh  tsŞbaa'owt the Lord, the "Yahweh" of hosts

The divine name given here,  "The Adown, Jehovah of  hosts,"  with which Isaiah everywhere introduces the judicial acts of God  (cf., Isa 1:24; 10:16,33; 19:4),  is a proof  that the proclamation of  judgment commences afresh here.

Isaiah 1:24 Therefore the Lord says,  the LORD of  hosts,  the Mighty One of Israel,  "Ah, I will rid Myself of My adversaries, and take vengeance on My enemies."
Isaiah 10:16 Therefore the Lord,  the LORD of hosts, will send leanness among his fat ones;  and under his glory He will kindle a burning like the burning of a fire.
Isaiah 10:33 Behold, the Lord,  the LORD of hosts,  will lop off the bough with terror;  those of high stature will be hewn down,  and the haughty will be humbled.
Isaiah 19:4 And the Egyptians I will give into the hand of a cruel master,  and a fierce king will rule over them,"  says the Lord, the LORD of hosts.

Trusting in man was the crying sin,  more especially of  the times of Uzziah-Jotham.
The glory of  the kingdom at that time carried the wrath of Jehovah within it.  The outbreak of  that wrath commenced in the time of Ahaz;  and even under Hezekiah it was merely suspended,  not changed.
Isaiah foretells this outbreak of  wrath.  He describes how Jehovah will lay the Jewish state in ruins,  by taking away the main supports of  its existence and growth.
"Supporter and means of support" (mash'en and mash'enah) express, first of all, the general idea.
The two nouns, which are only the masculine and feminine forms of one and the same word.

Of the various means of support, bread and wine are mentioned first,  not in a figurative sense,  but as the two indispensable conditions and the lowest basis of  human life.

Life is supported by bread and water:  it walks,  as it were, upon the crutch of bread,  so that  "breaking the staff of bread" (Lev 26:26; Ezek 4:16;  14:13; Ps 105:16) is equivalent to physical destruction.
The destruction of the Jewish state would accordingly be commenced by a removal on the part of Jehovah of all the support afforded by bread and water, i.e., all the stores of both.

Leviticus 26:26
When I have cut off your supply of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall bring back your bread by weight, and you shall eat and not be satisfied.

Ezekiel 4:16
Moreover He said to me,  "Son of man, surely I will cut off the supply of bread in Jerusalem;  they shall eat bread by weight and with anxiety,  and shall drink water by measure and with dread"

Ezekiel 14:13
"Son of man, when a land sins against Me by persistent unfaithfulness, I will stretch out My hand against it; I will cut off its supply of bread"

Psalm 105:16
Moreover He called for a famine in the land; He destroyed all the provision of bread.

And this was literally fulfilled,  for both in the Chaldean and Roman times Jerusalem perished in the midst of just such terrible famines as are threatened in the curses in Leviticus 26,  and more especially in Deut 28;  and in both cases the inhabitants were reduced to such extremities,  that women devoured their own children (Lam 2:20; Josephus, Wars of Jews, vi. 3, 3, 4).  The construction of  the verse is just the same as that of  Isa 25:6;  and it is Isaiah's custom to explain his own figures,  as we have already observed when comparing Isa 1:7 ff. and 1:23 with what preceded them.

"Every support of bread and every support of water"  are not to be regarded in this case as an explanation of  the general idea introduced before,  "supporters and means of support,"  but simply as the commencement of  the detailed expansion of the idea.  For the enumeration of  the supports that Jehovah would take away is continued in the next two verses.

Isaiah 3:2 & 3
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(2)  Soldier and warrior, the great and mighty man, The mighty man and the man of war
Magistrate and prophet,   the judge and the scribe
Augur and elder; the counselor, and the elder, The diviner and the ancient
(3)  Captain of fifty,    
Magnate and counselor,   the honorable man
Skilled artisan and expert enchanter; wise artificer, and the intelligent hearer he that commanded, and he that obeys, and the wise man, and the ancient, and the skilful in counsel.

From the NKJV

(2)  The mighty man and the man of war, the judge and the prophet, and the diviner and the elder;
(3)  The captain of fifty and the honorable man, the counselor and the skillful artisan, and the expert enchanter.

As the state had grown into a military state under Uzziah-Jotham, the prophet commences in both verses with military officers, viz., the gibbor, i.e., commanders whose bravery had been already tried.
The "man of war" (ish milchâmâh) private soldiers who had been equipped and well trained
The "captain of fifty" (sar chamisshim) leaders of  the smallest divisions of the army,  consisting of only fifty men

The prominent members of  the state are all mixed up together;

"judge" (shophet)
the officers appointed by the government to administer justice
"elder" (zâkeen)
the heads of families and the senators appointed by the town corporations
"counselor" (yooetz)
those nearest to the king
"highly distinguished" (nesu panim)
those whose personal appearance (panim) was accepted, i.e., welcome and regarded with honor (Saad.: wa'gîh, from wa'gh, the face of appearance), that is to say, persons of influence, not only on account of their office, but also on account of wealth, age, goodness, etc
"masters in art" (wachŞkam chŞmishiym)
or, as Jerome has very well rendered it - persons well versed in mechanical arts, and carrying them out with skill

Isaiah 3:4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(4)  And He will make boys their rulers,   I will appoint sucklings for their governors
And babes shall govern them. And mockers shall have dominion over them Feeble to rule

From the NKJV

(4)  "I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them.

Thus robbed of  its support,  and torn out of  its proper groove,  the kingdom of  Judah would fall a prey to the most shameless despotism.  The revived  "Solomonian" glory is followed,  as before,  by the times of  Rehoboam.

The king is not expressly named.
This was intentional. He had sunk into the mere shadow of  a king: it was not he who ruled,  but the aristocratic party that surrounded him,  who led him about in leading strings.
Now,  if  it is a misfortune in most cases for a king to be a child (na'ar),  the misfortune is twice as great when the princes or magnates who surround and advise him are youngsters (ne'ârim, i.e., young lords) in a bad sense.
It produces a government of  taalulim.  None of  the nouns in this form have a personal signification.
According to the primary meaning of  the verbal stem,  the word might signify childishness’,  equivalent to little children  (or men without heart or brain,)  as Luzzatto maintains.

Neither law nor justice would rule,  but the very opposite of  justice:  a course of  conduct which would make subjects,  like slaves,  the helpless victims at one time of  their lust (Judges 19:25),  and at another of  their cruelty.  They would be governed by lawless and bloodstained caprice,  of the most despotic character and varied forms.  And the people would resemble their rulers:  their passions would be let loose,  and all restraints of  modesty and decorum be snap asunder.

Isaiah 3:5
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(5)  So the people shall oppress one another – shall fall, man upon man  
Each oppressing his fellow: every man upon his neighbor  
The young shall bully the old; the child shall insult the elder man, Youth shall rule, ancient
And the despised [shall bully] the honored.   The base over the honorable

From the NKJV

(5)  The people will be oppressed, every one by another and every one by his neighbor; the child will be insolent toward the elder, and the base toward the honorable."

The commonest selfishness would then stifle every nobler motive;  one would become the tyrant of another,
and ill-mannered insolence would take the place of that reverence,  which is due to the old and esteemed from boys and those who are below them in position,  whether we regard the law of  nature,  the Mosaic law (Lev 19:32),  or the common custom of  society.  With such contempt of  the distinctions arising from age and position,  the state would very soon become a scene of the wildest confusion.

Leviticus 19:32
You shall rise before the gray headed and honor the presence of an old man,  and fear your God:  I am the LORD.\

Isaiah 3:6 & 7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(6)  For should a man seize his brother,    
In whose father’s house there is clothing: as one of his father’s household, Thou hast raiment  
“Come, be a chief over us, and let my meat be under thee. This tribute –under thy hand
And let this ruin be under your care,” and let my meat be under thee Under thy hand
(7)  The other will thereupon protest, And he shall answer in that day, and say  
“I will not be a dresser of wounds, I will not be thy ruler I am not fit to be head
With no food or clothing in my own house.
You shall not make me chief of a people!”

From the NKJV

(6)  When a man takes hold of his brother in the house of his father, saying,
"You have clothing; you be our ruler, and let these ruins be under your power,"
(7)  In that day he will protest, saying,
"I cannot cure your ills, for in my house is neither food nor clothing; do not make me a ruler of the people."

At length there would be no authorities left;  even the desire to rule would die out:  for despotism is sure to be followed by mob-rule,  and mob-rule by anarchy in the most literal sense.

The distress would become so great,  that whoever had a coat (cloak),  so as to be able to clothe himself at all decently,  would be asked to undertake the government.

"His father's house" - this is not an unmeaning trait in the picture of misery.
The population would have become so thin and dispirited through hunger,  that with a little energy it would be possible to decide within the narrow circle of  a family who should be ruler,  and to give effect to the decision.

The man who was distinguished above all others,  or at any rate above many others,  by the fact that he could still dress himself decently  (even if it were only in a blouse),  should be made supreme ruler or dictator (cf., kâtzin,);  and the state which lay so miserably in ruins should be under his hand,  i.e.,  his direction,  protection, and care.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Isaiah 3:8
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(8)  Ah, Jerusalem has stumbled,   or, are ruined
And Judah has fallen,   the men of Judah have gone into exile
Because by word and deed their tongues have spoken with iniquity, disobedient as they are towards  
They insult the Lord,   they excite to anger before his glory
Defying His majestic glance.    

From the NKJV

(8)  For Jerusalem stumbled, and Judah is fallen, because their tongue and their doings are against the LORD, to provoke the eyes of His glory.

The prophet then proceeds, in vv. 8-12,  to describe this deep,  tragical misery as a just retribution.
Jerusalem as a city is feminine,  according to the usual personification;
Judah as a people is regarded as masculine.
(Note: As a rule,  the name of a people (apart from the personification of the people as beth, a house) is only used as a feminine,  when the name of  the land stands for the nation itself (see Gesenius, Lehrbegr. p. 469).)
In this glorious form Jehovah looks upon His people with eyes of glory.
His pure but yet jealous love,  His holy love that breaks out in wrath against all who meet it with hatred instead of with love,  is reflected therein.

Isaiah 3:9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(9)  Their partiality in judgment accuses them; Wherefore now their glory has been brought low  
They avow their sins like Sodom, have proclaimed their sin Their sins cry out without ceasing
They do not conceal them.    
Woe to them! For ill
Have they served themselves.
  Woe unto their soul! For they have caused evil to come upon them.

From the NKJV

(9)  The look on their countenance witnesses against them, and they declare their sin as Sodom;  they do not hide it.
Woe to their soul!
For they have brought evil upon themselves.

But Israel,  instead of  walking in the consciousness of  being a constant and favorite object of  these majestic,  earnestly admonishing eyes,  was diligently engaged in bidding them defiance both in word and deed,  not even hiding its sin from fear of them,  but exposing them to view in the most shameless manner.

In any case,  the prophet refers to the impudence with which their enmity against God was shamelessly stamped upon their faces,  without even the self-condemnation that leads in other cases to a diligent concealment of the sin. 
And it did not even rest with this open though silent display:

they spoken openly of their sin (higgid in its simplest meaning,  to be open,  evident)  without making any secret of it, like the Sodomites, who publicly proclaimed their fleshly lusts (Gen 19).

Jerusalem was spiritually Sodom,  as the prophet called it in Isa 1:10.
By such barefaced sinning they did themselves harm.

Isaiah 3:10 & 11
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(10)  (Hail g the just man, for he shall
fare well;
Let us bind the just, for he is burdensome to us  
He shall eat the fruit of his works.   For the fruits of their works shall be repaid
(11)  Woe to the wicked man, for he shall fare ill;   whose deeds are evil
As his hands have dealt, so shall it be done to him.)    

From the NKJV

(10)  "Say to the righteous that it shall be well with them, for they shall eat the fruit of their doings.
(11)  Woe to the wicked! It shall be ill with him, for the reward of his hands shall be given him."

The prophet's meaning is evident enough.
But inasmuch as it is the curse of sin to distort the knowledge of  what is most obvious and self-evident,  and even to take it entirely away,  the prophet dwells still longer upon the fact that all sinning is self-destruction and self-murder,  placing this general truth against its opposite in a calling out to his contemporaries in verses 10, 11.

The righteous is well,  the wicked ill,  are both sustained by their eventual fate,  in the light of  which the previous misfortune of  the righteous appears as good fortune,  and the previous good fortune of the wicked as misfortune.  With an allusion to this great difference in their eventual fate,  the word  "say,"  which belongs to both clauses,  summons to an acknowledgment of  the good fortune of  the one and the misfortune of the other.

O that Judah and Jerusalem would acknowledge their own salvation before it was too late!
For the state of  the poor nation was already miserable enough,  and very near to destruction.

Isaiah 3:12
From the Tanakh From the  LXX
(12)  My people’s rulers are babes, your exactors strip you, and extortionist rule over you
It is governed by women.
O my people!
Your leaders are misleaders; they that pronounce you blessed lead you astray
They have confused the course of your paths. And pervert the path of your feet

From the NKJV

(12)  As for My people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them.
O My people! Those who lead you cause you to err, and destroy the way of your paths."

As for my people,  whose officers plunder it like the gleaners of a vineyard,  and like creditors do they rule over it.”   Targum

Here again the person of  the king is allowed to fall into the background.
But the female rule referred to afterwards,  points us to the court.  And this must really have been the case when Ahaz,  a young man,  came to the throne at the age of  twenty (according to the LXX twenty-five),  possibly towards the close of  the reign of Jotham.

With the deepest anguish the God, through the prophet,  repeats the expression  "my people,"  as he passes in his address to his people from the rulers to the preachers:  for the meassherim or leaders are prophets;  but what prophets! 

Instead of  leading the people in a straight path,  they lead them astray.
This they did,  as we may gather from the history of  this crowd of  prophets,  either
by acting in subservience to the ungodly interests of  the court with dynastic or demagogical servility,
by flattering the worst desires of the people.
Thus the way of  the path of  the people, i.e., the highway or road by whose ramifying paths the people were to reach the appointed goal, had been swallowed up by them, i.e., taken away from the sight and feet of the people, so that they could not find it and walk therein.

What is swallowed up is invisible,  has disappeared,  without a grace being left behind.
The same idea is applied in Job 39:24 to a galloping horse, which is said to swallow the road, inasmuch as it leaves piece after piece behind it in its rapid course.
It is stated here with regard to the prophets,  that they swallow up the road appointed by Jehovah,  as the one in which His people were to walk,  just as a criminal swallows a piece of  paper which bears witness against him,  and so hides it in his own stomach.

Thus the way of  salvation pointed out by the law was no longer to be either heard of or seen.
The prophets,  who ought to have preached it,  said nothing, and kept it swallowed.
It had completely perished,  as it were,  in the erroneous preaching of the false prophets.


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Isaiah 3:13
From the Tanakh From the  LXX
(13)  The Lord stands up to plead a cause, for judgment
He rises to champion peoples. will enter into judgment with his people

From the NKJV

(13) The LORD stands up to plead, and stands to judge the people.

This was how it stood.  There was but little to be expected from the exhortations of  the prophet;  so that he had to come back again and again to the proclamation of  judgment.
The judgment of  the world comes again before his mind.  When Jehovah,  weary with His long-suffering,

Rises up kum
He rises up from His heavenly throne,  this is described as  "standing up"  (Isa 2:19,21; 33:10);
Isaiah 2:19 & 21
When He arises to shake the earth mightily.
Isaiah 33:10
"Now I will rise," says the LORD
Sits down yashab
When He assumes the judgment-seat in the sight of  all the world, this is called "sitting down"
(Ps. 9:4, Joel 3:12)
Psalm 9:4
You sat on the throne judging in righteousness.
Joel 3:12
For there I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations.
Comes down wŞyaarad
Micah 1:3
For behold, the LORD is coming out of His place; He will come down and tread on the high places of the earth.
Comes forward nizzab or amad
When,  having come down from heaven,  He comes forward as accuser,  this is called  "standing" (nizzab) or  coming forward (amad),  as the opposite of  sitting; nizzab, - standing, with the subordinate idea of being firm, resolute, ready).  Ps 82:1
Psalm 82:1
God stands in the congregation of the mighty;  He judges among the gods.

This pleading (ribh)  is also judging (din),  because His accusation,  which is incontrovertible, contains the sentence in itself;  and His sentence,  which executes itself irresistibly,  is of itself  the infliction of punishment.

Thus does he stand in the midst of  the nations at once accuser,  judge,  and executioner.
But among the nations - it is more especially against Israel that He contends;
and in Israel  - it is more especially against the leaders of  the poor misguided and neglected people that He sets Himself.

Isaiah 3:14 & 15
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(14)  The Lord will bring this charge enter into judgment with the elders of his people  
“It is you who have ravaged the
set my vineyard on fire, Oppressed my people
That which was robbed from the poor is in your houses.    
(15)  How dare you crush My people   ye impoverish my people
And grind the faces of the poor?”   Turn the face of the needy this way and that in their cause
- Says my Lord God of Hosts.   ord Elohim Zebaoth

From the NKJV

(14)  The LORD will enter into judgment with the elders of His people and His princes:
"For you have eaten up the vineyard; the plunder of the poor is in your houses.
(15)  What do you mean by crushing My people and grinding the faces of the poor?"  Says the Lord GOD of hosts.

I have set you over my vineyard,  but he has consumed the vineyard.
The only question is,  whether the sentence is to be regarded as suppressed by Jehovah Himself,  or by the prophet.  Most certainly by Jehovah Himself.  The majesty with which He appeared before the rulers of  His people as,  even without words,  a practical and undeniable proof that their majesty was only a shadow of  His,  and their office His trust.

But their office consisted in the fact that Jehovah had committed His people to their care.
The vineyard of  Jehovah was His people - a self-evident figure,  which the prophet dresses up in the form of  a parable in chapter 5.   Jehovah had appointed them as gardeners and keepers of this vineyard,  but they themselves have become the very beasts that they ought to have warded off,  is applied to the beasts which completely devour the blades of  a corn-field or the grapes of a vineyard.  This change was perfectly obvious.
The possessions stolen from their unhappy countrymen,  who were still in their houses,  were the tangible proof  of  their plundering of  the vineyard.

"The suffering:"  'ani  (depressus,  the crushed)  is introduced as explanatory of  haccerem,  the prey,  because depression and misery were the ordinary fate of  the congregation which God called His vineyard.

"Grind the face" (tâchan p'ne)  is a strong metaphor without a parallel.

The former signifies  "to pound,"
the latter "to grind," as the millstone grinds the corn.
They grind the faces of those who are already bowed down,  thrusting them back with such unmerciful severity,  that they stand as it were annihilated,  and their faces become as white as flour,  or as pale as death,  from oppression and despair.
Thus the language supplied to a certain extent appropriate figures,  with which to describe the conduct of the rulers of  Israel.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Isaiah 3:16 & 17
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(16)  Are so vein.    
And walk with heads thrown back outstretched neck Uplifted necks
With roving eyes, winking of the eyes Ogle with their eyes
And with mincing gait, motion of the feet Excite to anger (or, desire) with their feet
Making a tinkling with their feet” –   at the same time drawing their garments in trains
(17)  My Lord will bare the pates will humble the chief daughters of Sion Enslave the honorable
Of the daughters of Zion,    
The Lord will uncover their heads. The Lord will expose their form in that
take away their glory

From the NKJV

(16)  Moreover the LORD says:
"Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go, making a jingling with their feet, 
(17)  Therefore the Lord will strike with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and the LORD will uncover their secret parts." 

But notwithstanding the dramatic vividness with which the prophet pictures to himself  this scene of  judgment,  he is obliged to break off at the very beginning of  his description,  because another word of  Jehovah comes upon him.

This applies to the women of  Jerusalem,  whose authority,  at the time when Isaiah prophesied,  was no less influential than that of  their husbands who had forgotten their calling.  Their inward pride (gâbah, as in Ezek 16:50 - "And they were haughty and committed abomination before Me"; cf., Zeph 3:11 - "And you shall no longer be haughty in My holy mountain.")  shows itself outwardly.

They walk with extended throat, i.e.,  bending the neck back,  trying to make them taller than they are,  because they think themselves so great.

They could only take short steps,  because of  the chains by which the costly foot-rings (achâsim) worn above their ankles were connected together.  These chains,  which were probably ornamented with bells,  as is sometimes the case now in the East,  they used to tinkle as they walked:  they made an ankle-tinkling with their feet,  setting their feet down in such a manner that these ankle-rings knocked against each other.

Isaiah 3:18-23
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(18)  In that day, my Lord will strip off
the finery! Of the anklets, the fillets,
and the crescents;  (19)  of the eardrops, the bracelets, and the veils;  (20)  the.
Turbans, the armlets, and the sashes; of the talismans and the amulets;
(21)  the signet rings and the nose rings;  (22)  of the festive robes, the mantles,
And the shawls; the purses,  (23)  the
lace gowns, and the linen vests; and the
Kerchiefs and the capes.
take away glory of raiment chains, ornaments of their faces, glorious ornaments, armlets, bracelets, writhed work, finger-rings, ornaments for the
right hand, ear-rings, garments with scarlet borders, shawls, Spartan transparent dresses, fine linen
interwoven with couches.
bravery of their sandals, net-bands (or, bands), nets, chains, bracelets and veils (or, mufflers), head-tires (or, crowns), ankle-chains, hairpins ear-rings, necklaces, rings, nose-rings, tunics, mantles, shawls, breast-girdles, mirrors, fine linen, crowns (or, turbans) cloaks.

From the NKJV

(18)  In that day the Lord will take away the finery: the jingling anklets, the scarves, and the crescents;
(19)  The pendants, the bracelets, and the veils;
(20)  The headdresses, the leg ornaments, and the headbands; the perfume boxes, the charms,  (21)  and the rings; the nose jewels,  (22)  the festal apparel, and the mantles; the outer garments, the purses,  (23)  and the mirrors; the fine linen, the turbans, and the robes.

It was not usually Isaiah's custom to enter into such minute particulars.
And even in other prophecies against the women we find nothing of  the kind again.  But in this instance,  the enumeration of  the female ornaments is connected with that of  the state props in Isa 3:1-3,  and that of  the lofty and exalted in Isa 2:13-16,  so as to form a trilogy,  and has its own special explanation in that boundless love of  ornament which had become prevalent in the time of  Uzziah-Jotham.

It was the prophet's intention to produce a ludicrous,  but yet serious impression,  as to the immeasurable luxury which really existed;  and in the prophetic address,  his design throughout is to bring out the glaring contrast between

the titanic,  massive,  worldly glory,  in all its varied forms,
and that true,  spiritual,  and majestically simple glory,  whose reality is manifested from within outwards.

The "crescents" (saharonim) were little pendants of  this kind,  fastened round the neck and hanging down upon the breast  (in Judg 8:21 we meet with them as ornaments hung round the camels' necks).  Such ornaments were still worn in the 1800's by Arabian girls,  who generally had several different kinds of  them;  the hilâl,  or new moon,  being a symbol of  increasing good fortune,  and as such the most approved charm against the evil eye.

"Ear-rings" (netiphoth, ear-drops):  we meet with these in Judg 8:26, as an ornament worn by Midianites kings.

"Diadems" (pe'erim) are only mentioned in other parts of  the Scriptures as being worn by men (e.g., by priests, bride-grooms, or persons of high rank).

"Stepping-chains:"  tze'âdoth, from tze'âdah,  a step;  hence the chain worn to shorten and give elegance to the step.

"Girdles:"  kisshurim, from kâshar (cingere),  dress girdles,  such as were worn by brides upon their wedding-day;  the word is erroneously rendered hair-pins (kalmasmezayyah) in the Targum.

"Smelling-bottles:"  botte hannephesh, holders of scent (nephesh, the breath of an aroma).

"Amulets:"  lechashim (from lâchash, to work by incantations),  gems or metal plates with an inscription upon them,  which were worn as a protection as well as an ornament.

"Finger-rings:"  tabbâ'oth, from tâba,  to impress or seal,  signet rings worn upon the finger,  corresponding to the chothâm worn by men upon the breast suspended by a cord.

"Nose-rings"   nizmee hâaph   were fastened in the central division of  the nose,  and hung down over the mouth:  they have been ornaments in common use in the East from the time of the patriarchs (Gen 24:22) down to the present day.

"Gala-dresses"   machalâtsoth  are dresses not usually worn,  but taken off  when at home.

"Sleeve-frocks"   ma'atâphâh   the second tunic,  worn above the ordinary one,  the Roman stola.

"Wrappers"   mitpâchoth  (from tâphach, expander),  broad cloths wrapped round the body,  such as Ruth wore when she crept in to Boaz in her best attire (Ruth 3:15).

"Pocketscharitim  were for holding money,  which was generally carried by men in the girdle,  or in a purse.

"Hand-mirrorsgilyonim  the Septuagint renders this diafanee' lakoonika', sc. hima'tia,  Lacedaemonian gauze or transparent dresses,  which showed the nakedness rather than concealed it  (from gâlâh, retegere);  but the better rendering is mirrors with handles,  polished metal plates.

The prophet enumerates twenty-one different ornaments:  three sevens of  a very bad kind,  especially for the husbands of  these state-dolls.
There is no particular order observed in the enumeration,  either from head to foot,  or from the inner to the outer clothing;  but they are arranged as much ad libitum as the dress itself.

Isaiah 3:24
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(24)  And then –    
Instead of perfume, there shall be rot; dust Set sweet odors shall waste away
And instead of an apron, a rope;   bind on their girdles there shall be marks of smiting
Instead of a diadem of beaten-work,   instead of the cutting (or rounding off) of locks there shall be
Instead of a rich robe,   instead of their walking with pride,
A girding of sackcloth;   this vengeance shall be exacted of them, because
A burn instead of beauty.   have gone astray in their beauty

From the NKJV

(24)  And so it shall be:
Instead of a sweet smell there will be a stench;
Instead of a sash, a rope;
Instead of well-set hair, baldness;
Instead of a rich robe, a girding of sackcloth;
And branding instead of beauty.

When Jehovah took away all this glory,  with which the women of  Jerusalem were adorned,  they would be turned into wretched-looking prisoners,  disfigured by ill treatment and dirt.  Moldiness,  or mother (mak, as in Isa 5:24, the dust of  things that have molded away),  with which they would be covered,  and which they would be obliged to breathe,  would take the place of the bosom, i.e.,  the scent of  the balsam shrub (bâsâm),  and of sweet-scented pomade in general;  and nipâh that of  the beautifully embroidered girdle.

Baldness takes the place of  artistic ringlets so that it is in apposition.  The reference is not to golden ornaments for the head,  as the Septuagint rendering gives it,  although miksheh is used elsewhere to signify embossed or carved work in metal or wood;  but here we are evidently to understand by the "artificial twists" either curls made with the curling-tongs,  or the hair plaited and twisted up in knots,  which they would be obliged to cut off in accordance with the mourning customs,  or which would fall off in consequence of grief.

Isaiah 3:25
From the Tanakh From the  LXX
(25)  Her men shall fall by the sword, And thy most beautiful son whom thou lovest shall fall-sword
Her fighting manhood in battle;  

From the NKJV

(25)  Your men shall fall by the sword, and your mighty in the war.

The prophet now passes over to a direct address to Jerusalem itself, since the  "daughters of  Zion"  and the daughter of  Zion in her present degenerate condition. The daughter of  Zion loses her sons,  and consequently the daughters of  Zion their husbands.

The plural is used as a prose word in the Pentateuch;  but in the later literature it is a poetic archaism.
"Thy might"  is used interchangeably with  "thy men,"  the possessors of  the might being really intended.

Isaiah 3:26
From the Tanakh From the  LXX
(26)  And her gates shall lament and mourn, the stores of your ornaments shall mourn
And she shall be emptied, thou shalt be left alone
Shall sit on the ground. Shalt be leveled with the ground

From the NKJV

(26)  Her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit on the ground.

What the prophet here foretells to the daughter of  Zion he sees in verse 26 fulfilled upon her.
The gates,  where the husbands of  the daughters of  Zion,  who have now fallen in war,  sued at one time to gather together in such numbers,  are turned into a state of  desolation,  in which they may,  as it were,  be heard complaining,  and seen to mourn.
The daughter of  Zion herself is utterly vacated,  thoroughly emptied,  completely deprived of all her former population.
In this state of  the most mournful widowhood or orphanage,  brought down from her lofty seat and princely glory (Jer 13:18), she sits down upon the ground,  just as Judaea is represented as doing upon Roman medals that were struck after the destruction of  Jerusalem,  where she is introduced as a woman thoroughly broken down,  and sitting under a palm-tree in an attitude of  despair,  with a warrior standing in front of her,  the inscription upon the medal being Judaea capta, or devicta.  The Septuagint rendering is quite in accordance with this.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Jeremiah 13:18
Say to the king and to the queen mother,  "Come down from your thrones,  for your glorious crowns will fall from your heads."    (NIV)


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Verse Figure of Speech Represents
2:2 All nations Many from all nations
2:3 Go up When one verb is yoked on to two subjects, while grammatically a second verb is required.  The second verb must be supplied (enter into) “and let us go up and (enter into) the house,” &c.
2:4 Swords ... Spears For all kinds of weapons.
While plow shares and pruning-hooks put by the same Figure of  Speech for all implements of peace.
2:7 Their land…(repeated) Intertwining, the repetition of different words in successive sentences in the same order and the same sense. “Their land is full of silver and gold, treasures, horses and chariots”
2:11 Lofty = proud To impress us with the far-reaching object and effect of  Jehovah’s dealings in “the day of the Lord,”  recorded in verses 11-17.
2:11 Humbled = lowered The Hebrew word here is shaphal. Same word as “brought low” (v. 12), “made low” (v. 17.).
2:19 Terribly (mightily) the earth Rhyming Words.  The repetition of words similar in sound,  but not necessarily in sense.  The Hebrew words here are le’aroz  ha’arez.  This is found in the Hebrew not the English.
3:1 Behold Employing some word that directs special attention to some particular point or subject. In this case it is used for emphasis.
3:1 Stay…staff  (Stock ... store) Rhyming Words.  The repetition of words similar in sound,  but not necessarily in sense.
3:1 Bread …water For all kinds of food
3:6 Clothing For all necessities
3:8 The eyes of  His glory His glorious presence, “eyes” being put by Figure of Speech. When one name or noun is used instead of another,  to which it stands in a certain relation.  In this case the subject is put for something pertaining to it.
3:9 Declare their sin Have declared…have not hidden.
Where what is said is,  immediately after,  put in another or opposite way to make it impossible for the sense to be missed.  Declare their sin….hide it not.
3:11 Woe Parenthetic addition by way of feeling.
3:11 Hands Represents what is done with the hands.
3:26 Gates lament and mourn Personification. Things represented as persons.
The members of the human body Gen. 48:14;  Ps. 35:10
Animals Gen. 9:5;  Job 12:7
Products of the earth Nah. 1:4
Inanimate things Gen. 4:10
Kingdoms, countries, and states Ps. 45:12
Human actions, &c Gen. 18:20;  Ps. 85:10

A word about Figures of Speech
“And her gates shall lament and mourn; and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground.” Isaiah 3:26.

First = gates do not talk or lament and mourn.
Second = If we take this literally, we would have trouble explaining that fact.
Third = To the Jewish mind, it was quite understandable, because they recognized it as a figure of speech.
Fourth = Unless we can see it as such, we will be confused.

If we can understand what the Figures of  Speech meant at the time they were used, it will help us understand the true meaning of the Scripture. Remember, this was originally written in Hebrew, which was a "pictorial" language.
(Paul the Learner)


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Isaiah 2:1-3:26 - from the Amplified Version

2:1 THE WORD which Isaiah son of Amoz saw [revealed] concerning Judah and Jerusalem.
(2)  It shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be [firmly] established as the highest of the mountains and shall be exalted above the hills, and all nations shall flow to it.
(3)  And many people shall come and say, Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob, that He may teach us His ways and that we may walk in His paths. For out of Zion shall go forth the law and instruction, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.
(4)  And He shall judge between the nations and shall decide [disputes] for many peoples; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. [Mic 4:1-3.]
(5)  O house of Jacob, come, let us walk in the light of the Lord.
(6)  Surely [Lord] You have rejected and forsaken your people, the house of Jacob, because they are filled [with customs] from the east and with soothsayers [who foretell] like the Philistines; also they strike hands and make pledges and agreements with the children of aliens. [Deut 18:9-12.]
(7)  Their land also is full of silver and gold; neither is there any end to their treasures. Their land is also full of horses; neither is there any end to their chariots. [Deut 17:14-17.]
(8)  Their land also is full of idols; they worship the work of their own hands, what their own fingers have made.
(9)  And the common man is bowed down [before idols], also the great man is brought low and humbles himself--therefore forgive them not [O Lord].
(10)  Enter into the rock and hide yourself in the dust from before the terror of the Lord and from the glory of His majesty.
(11)  The proud looks of man shall be brought low, and the haughtiness of men shall be humbled; and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day.
(12)  For there shall be a day of the Lord of hosts against all who are proud and haughty and against all who are lifted up--and they shall be brought low-- [Zeph 2:3; Mal 4:1.]
(13) [The wrath of God will begin by coming down] against all the cedars of Lebanon [west of the Jordan] that are high and lifted up, and against all the oaks of Bashan [east of the Jordan],
(14)  And [after that] against all the high mountains and all the hills that are lifted up,
(15)  And against every high tower and every fenced wall,
(16)  And against all the ships of Tarshish and all the picturesque and desirable imagery [designed for mere ornament and luxury].
(17)  Then the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be brought low; and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day.
(18)  And the idols shall utterly pass away (be abolished).
(19)  Then shall [the stricken, deprived of all in which they had trusted] go into the caves of the rocks and into the holes of the earth from before the terror and dread of the Lord and from before the glory of His majesty, when He arises to shake mightily and terribly the earth. [Luke 23:30.]
(20)  In that day men shall cast away to the moles and to the bats their idols of silver and their idols of gold, which they made for themselves to worship,
(21)  To go into the caverns of the rocks and into the clefts of the ragged rocks from before the terror and dread of the Lord and from before the glory of His majesty, when He rises to shake mightily and terribly the earth.
(22)  Cease to trust in [weak, frail, and dying] man, whose breath is in his nostrils [for so short a time]; in what sense can he be counted as having intrinsic worth?

3:1 FOR BEHOLD, the Lord, the Lord of hosts, is taking away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff [every kind of prop], the whole stay of bread and the whole stay of water,
(2)  The mighty man and the man of war, the judge and the [professional] prophet, the one who foretells by divination and the old man,
(3)  The captain of fifty and the man of rank, the counselor and the expert craftsman and the skillful enchanter.
(4)  And I will make boys their princes, and with childishness shall they rule over them [with outrage instead of justice].
(5)  And the people shall be oppressed, each one by another, and each one by his neighbor; the child shall behave himself proudly and with insolence against the old man, and the lowborn against the honorable [person of rank].
(6)  When a man shall take hold of his brother in the house of his father, saying, You have a robe, you shall be our judge and ruler, and this heap of ruins shall be under your control--
(7)  In that day he will answer, saying, I will not be a healer and one who binds up;  I am not a physician. For in my house is neither bread nor clothing; you shall not make me judge and ruler of the people.
(8)  For Jerusalem is ruined and Judah is fallen, because their speech and their deeds are against the Lord, to provoke the eyes of His glory and defy His glorious presence.
(9)  Their respecting of persons and showing of partiality witnesses against them; they proclaim their sin like Sodom; they do not hide it. Woe to them! For they have brought evil [as a reward upon themselves].
(10)  Say to the righteous that it shall be well with them, for they shall eat the fruit of their deeds.
(11)  Woe to the wicked! It shall be ill with them, for what their hands have done shall be done to them.
(12)  As for My people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them. O My people, your leaders cause you to err, and they confuse (destroy and swallow up) the course of your paths.
(13)  The Lord stands up to contend, and stands to judge the peoples and His people.
14 The Lord enters into judgment with the elders of His people and their princes: For [by your exactions and oppressions you have robbed the people and ruined the country] you have devoured the vineyard; the spoil of the poor is in your houses.
(15)  What do you mean by crushing My people and grinding the faces of the poor? says the Lord God of hosts.
(16)  Moreover, the Lord said, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and with undisciplined (flirtatious and alluring) eyes, tripping along with mincing and affected gait, and making a tinkling noise with [the anklets on] their feet,
(17)  Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the heads of the daughters of Zion [making them bald], and the Lord will cause them to be [taken as captives and to suffer the indignity of being] stripped naked.
(18)  In that day the Lord will take away the finery of their tinkling anklets, the caps of network, the crescent head ornaments,
(19)  The pendants, the bracelets or chains, and the spangled face veils and scarfs,
(20)  The headbands, the short ankle chains [attached from one foot to the other to insure a measured gait], the sashes, the perfume boxes, the amulets or charms [suspended from the ears or neck],
(21)  The signet rings and nose rings,
(22)  The festal robes, the cloaks, the stoles and shawls, and the handbags,
(23)  The hand mirrors, the fine linen [undergarments], the turbans, and the [whole body-enveloping] veils.
(24)  And it shall come to pass that instead of the sweet odor of spices there shall be the stench of rottenness; and instead of a girdle, a rope; and instead of well-set hair, baldness; and instead of a rich robe, a girding of sackcloth; and searing [of captives by the scorching heat] instead of beauty.
(25)  Your men shall fall by the sword, and your mighty men in battle.
(26)  And [Jerusalem's] gates shall lament and mourn [as those who wail for the dead]; and she, being ruined and desolate, shall sit upon the ground.

(End of  Lesson 2)




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