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Matthew 26:17-19
(17)  Now on the first day of the Feast of the Unleavened Bread
the disciples came to Jesus, saying to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?"
(18)  And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house with My disciples."'"
(19)  So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them; and they prepared the Passover.

Mark 14:12-16
(12)  Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they killed the Passover lamb,
His disciples said to Him, "Where do You want us to go and prepare, that You may eat the Passover?"
(13)  And He sent out two of His disciples and said to them, "Go into the city, and a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him.  (14)  Wherever he goes in, say to the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?"'   (15)  Then he will show you a large upper room, furnished and prepared; there make ready for us."
(16)  So His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found it just as He had said to them; and they prepared the Passover.
Luke 22:7-13
(7)   Then came the Day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover must be killed.  (8)  And He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat."
(9)   So they said to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare?"
(10)  And He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered the city, a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house which he enters.  (11)  Then you shall say to the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with My disciples?"'  (12)  Then he will show you a large, furnished upper room; there make ready."
(13)  So they went and found it just as He had said to them, and they prepared the Passover.

The first day of  Unleavened Bread

As the actual Feast of  Unleavened Bread did not begin till the day after the Passover  (Lev. 23:5,6; Num. 28:16,17),  this could not have been properly,  the first day of  that feast (technically).
But as the Jews began to eat unleavened bread on the 14th of the month  (Exodus 12:18)  this day was often termed  "the first of unleavened bread."

Leviticus 23:5-7
On the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight is the LORD's Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of  Unleavened Bread to the LORD;  seven days you must eat unleavened bread.    (NKJV)

Numbers 28:16-17
On the fourteenth day of the first month is the Passover of the LORD. And on the fifteenth day of this month is the feast; unleavened bread shall be eaten for seven days.    (NKJV)

Exodus 12:18
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.    (NKJV)

As the Jewish day began at 6:00 P.M.,  Jesus appears to have observed this meal with His disciples the preceding evening,  which would actually be the beginning of the 6th day of the week.
Thus,  their Passover was eaten the same day with the Jews,  but not at the same hour.

Jesus observed the Passover the beginning of the 14th Nisan - the precise day in which the Jews had eaten their first Passover in Egypt  (Exodus 12:6-12).

Where do you want us to prepare?

The Israelites who came to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover were received by the inhabitants as brothers,  and apartments were gratuitously furnished them were they might eat the feast.  In return,  the guests gave their hosts the skins of  the paschal Iambs and the vessels they had used in the ceremonies.  According to this custom the disciples,  wishing to make arrangements for the Passover,  inquired of the Lord if  He had any special house in view where He desired to go.

A man ... carrying a pitcher of water

Women usually carry water.
Therefore the sight of a man carrying water would more readily attract attention.
This man was probably a servant,  employed in carrying home the water that was to be used for baking the unleavened bread on the following day;  for on the day of the feast it was not lawful to carry any thing.

Where is the guest room?

There seems to have been a previous understanding between Jesus and this man who must have been a follower of His.
It was a common practice that more than one company partook of  the paschal supper in the same apartment together;  but Christ will have His chamber for Himself and His disciples alone.

Even as Christ would not share His guest chamber with another,  neither will He share His possession of our life with another.

The Amplified Bible has:
"And whatever [house] he enters,  say to the master of the house,  The Teacher says:  Where is My guest room, where I may eat the Passover [supper] with My disciples?
He speaks as Lord!

A large upper room

Some suppose this to be the  "aliyah,"  or room above the porch or on the roof.
Others,  however,  think the words refer to a large open room fronting the court,  on the side opposite the entrance from the porch,  and elevated above the level of the court.  This was a very important apartment in an Eastern house,  and was often elegantly fitted up.
Here the owner receives his friends,  or those who come to him on business.
It is the first room that meets the eye of a visitor on entering the court,  and frequently presents a splendid appearance.
Sometimes a fountain in the court directly in front of this apartment cools the air,  while adding beauty to the appearance.


The perfect participle is used here.  The room had already been furnished with carpets and hall couches around the table properly spread.  It does not appear that the Jews ate the Passover now,  as their fathers did formerly,  standing, with their shoes on, and their staves in their hands.

The room was prepared for the eating of the Passover,  speaking of the removal of all leaven.

They prepared the Passover

The two disciples,  Peter and John,  went,  as was customary,  to the temple with the paschal Lamb.
There,  taking their turn with others who thronged the temple on the same errand:

They killed the Iamb,  the nearest priest catching the blood in a gold or silver bowl,  and passing it to the next in the row of priests until it reached the priest nearest the altar,  who instantly sprinkled it toward the altar's base.
The Lamb was then flayed and the entrails removed, to be burnt with incense on the altar.
All this was done in the afternoon. As soon as it was dark the Lamb was roasted with great care.

There was also the provision of  the unleavened cakes,  the bitter herbs,  the wine,  and the preparation of the

And in the preparation of the food there were many rituals to be observed.
For instance:  there was the making of a paste to resemble the mortar that was used in the laying of bricks in Egypt. This ritual was later changed to making this paste grinding apples, nuts, raisins, and mixing this with wine.

Excerpts from Farrar

     It was the morning of Thursday - Green Thursday as it used to be called during the Middle Ages - that some conversation took place between Jesus and His disciples about the Paschal feast.
     As He had now withdrawn from all public teaching,  and was spending this day in complete seclusion,  they probably expected that He would eat the Passover at Bethany,  which for such purposes had been decided by rabbinical authority to be within the limits of Jerusalem.  But His plans were otherwise.
    We cannot always presuppose God's plans and methods - we must always be ready to follow His leading. 
It was towards the evening,  probably when the gathering dusk would prevent all needless observation,  which Jesus and His disciples walked from Bethany,  by that old familiar road over the Mount of Olives,  which His sacred feet were never again destined to traverse until after death.  How far they attracted attention,  or how it was that He whose person was known to so many - and who,  as the great central figure of such great counter - agitations,  had,  four days before,  been accompanied with shouts of triumph,  as He would be,  on the following day,  with yells of insult - could now enter Jerusalem unnoticed with His followers,  we cannot tell.
(Life of Christ by Dr. Frederic W. Farrar Copyright: 1949)

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Matthew 26:20
(20)  When evening had come, He sat down with the twelve.

Mark 14:17-18
(17)   In the evening He came with the twelve.

Luke 22:14-18
(14)  When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him.  (15)  Then He said to them, "With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer;  (16)  for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God."
(17)  Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, "Take this and divide it among yourselves;  (18)  for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes."

When the hour had come

Matthew and Mark say, "When it was evening."
In other words, 6:00 P.M.
For the Jews,  officially Nisan 14.

He sat down with the twelve

When they arrived,  the meal was ready,  the table spread, the  "triclinia"  laid with cushions for the guests.
Imagination loves to reproduce all the probable details of  that deeply moving and eternally sacred scene;  and if we compare the notices of ancient Jewish custom  we can feel but little doubt as to the general nature of the arrangements. They were totally unlike those with which the genius of Leonardo da Vinci,  and other great painters,  has made us so familiar;

1. The room probably had white walls,  and was bare of all except the most necessary furniture and adornment.
2. The couches or cushions,  each large enough to hold three persons,  were placed around three sides of one or more low tables of gaily painted wood,  each scarcely higher than stools.
3. The seat of  honor was the central one of the central  "triclinium,"  or mat.
The Lord of course, occupied this.
4. Each guest reclined at full length,  leaning on his left elbow,  that his right hand might be free.
5. At the right hand of  Jesus reclined the beloved disciple,  John.

This room was conjectured by some to have been in the home of Joseph of  Arimathaea,  or John Mark.
Also some have suggested that this is the room where three days afterwards the sorrow-stricken Apostles first saw their risen Savior - perhaps the very room where,  amid the sound of a rushing mighty wind,  each meek brow was first anointed with the Pentecostal flame.

With fervent desire I have desired

A Hebraism for, "I have desired most earnestly."
He is telling them that,  having purposed to redeem a lost world by His blood,  He ardently longed for the time in which He was of  offer Himself up.
Such love did Jesus bear to the human race!

To the Jew of that day,  the Passover feast was in commemoration of that deliverance from Egypt and its slavery. But that very deliverance,  and that original meal which preceded it,  was only figurative;  in anticipation of this Bloody Sacrifice which would deliver from Sin and its slavery.

Out of some 260,000 lambs slain on Nisan 14, A.D. 34

It was upon this One that was focused all the sin and sacrifices of past,  present and future -
It was for this purpose that He came
And He earnestly anticipated and desired it
But not for Himself

His desire showed a total lack of  "Self-interest" - He desired earnestly for two purposes:

1. That He might glorify His Father
2. That He might save those a lost world

He took the cup

This was not the  "sacramental cup,"  for that was taken after supper (vs. 20).
This was the cup which was ordinarily taken before supper.

I will not drink ... until the kingdom of God comes

That is,  before the time of another Passover,  the Holy Ghost shall descent;  the Gospel of the Kingdom will be established.

Passover ceremonies in the time of Christ

The ceremonies of the Passover supper in the time of Christ were as follows:

The 1st Cup

1. A cup of wine was filled for every one of the company,  over which he who presided at the feast
pronounced a blessing,  after which the wine was drank.
2. The bitter herbs,  the unleavened bread,  the  "charoseth,"  and the flesh of the  "chagigah," were then brought in.
A. The  "charoseth"  was composed of vinegar and water,  according to some authorities.
Others say that it was a mixture of vinegar,  figs,  almonds,  dates,  raisins,  and spice,  beaten to the consistency of mortar or clay, to commemorate the toils of the Israelites when they worked in the brick-yards of Egypt.
B. The  "chagigah"  was a special voluntary peace offering that was made at the Passover and other great festivals.
3. When these were all placed upon the table,  the president of the feast,  who in a family celebration of the Passover was the head of the family,  took a portion of the bitter herbs in his hand,  dipped into the  "charoseth,"  and,  after thanking God for the fruits of the earth,  ate a piece the size of  an olive,  and gave a similar portion to each one,  who,  according to custom,  reclined with him on the dinner-bed.  The unleavened bread was then handed round,  and the paschal lamb placed on the table in front of the president.
The 2nd Cup
4. A second cup of  wine was poured out and drank,  after which an explanation of the feast was given,  in accordance with Exodus 12:26,27.  The first part of the  "Hallel,"  or hymn of praise,  was then sung.  This consisted of Psalms 113 and 114,  and was followed by a blessing.
5. After the singing,  unleavened bread and bitter herbs,  dipped in the  "charoseth,"  were eaten.
Then the flesh of the  "chagigah"  was eaten,  and next the paschal lamb.
The 3rd and 4th Cups


A third cup of wine was then poured out and drank,  and soon after a fourth.
After the fourth cup the rest of the  "Hallel"  was sung.
This consisted of Psalm 115,  and is the  "Hymn"  referred to in verse Luke 22:30 and Mark 14:26.


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Luke 22:24-30
(24)  Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be considered the greatest.  (25)  And He said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those who exercise authority over them are called 'benefactors.'  (26)  But not so among you; on the contrary, he who is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he who governs as he who serves.  (27)  For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table? Yet I am among you as the one who serves.
(28)  "But you are those who have continued with Me in My trials.  (29)  And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me,  (30)  that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

There was...a dispute

Referring probably to some symptoms of  the former strife that had reappeared,  perhaps on seeing the whole Paschal arrangements committed to two of the twelve.  And especially these two,  who had both possibly laid claim to the position of  second in command to the Messiah in the Kingdom.

It may be that the very act of  taking their seats at the table had,  once more,  stirred up in the minds of the
apostles those disputes about precedence which,  on previous occasions,  Jesus had so tenderly and beautifully rebuked.

But at this moment,  when the soul of Jesus was full of such sublime purpose,  strife of this kind must have been more than ever painful.

It showed how little,  as yet,  even these His chosen followers had entered into the meaning of  His life.
It showed that,  even now,  they had wholly failed to understand His many and earnest warnings as to the nature of His kingdom,  and the certainty of His fate.
That some great crisis was at hand - that their Master was to suffer and be slain - they may have partially realized;  but they seem to have regarded this as a mere temporary obscuration,  to be followed by an immediate divulgence of  His splendor,  and the setting up on earth of His Messianic throne.

Are called benefactors

The very word used here was the surname of  some of  the Ptolemy's of  Egypt - Ptolemy Euergetes, i.e. the Benefactor.  It was a custom among the ancient Romans to distribute part of  the lands that they had conquered
on the frontiers of  the empire to their soldiers;  those who enjoyed such lands were "beneficiarii;" and the lands themselves were  "beneficia"  as being held on the beneficence of the sovereign;  and it is no wonder that such sovereigns,  however tyrannical or oppressive they might have been in other respects,  were termed benefactors by those who were thus dependent on their bounty.

BUT,  He says,  NOT  SO  AMONG  YOU ... His kingdom would not be like that of wicked men.

Let him be as the younger ... as he that serves

Dr. Lightfoot conjectures that Peter was the eldest of all the disciples;  and he supposes that the strife was kindled between him and the sons of Zebedee,  James and John.

Jesus was to show them here that He,  Himself,  was the Great Example.
That there was to be no competition between them - only a following in His Steps.


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John 13:1-17
(1)   Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end.
(2)   And supper being ended, the devil having already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray Him,  (3)  Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He had come from God and was going to God,  (4)  rose from supper and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself.  (5)  After that, He poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel with which He was girded.  (6)  Then He came to Simon Peter. And Peter said to Him, "Lord, are You washing my feet?"
(7)   Jesus answered and said to him, "What I am doing you do not understand now, but you will know after this."
(8)   Peter said to Him, "You shall never wash my feet!"
Jesus answered him, "If I do not wash you, you have no part with Me."
(9)   Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!"
(10) Jesus said to him, "He who is bathed needs only to wash his feet, but is completely clean; and you are clean, but not all of you."  (11)  For He knew who would betray Him; therefore He said, "You are not all clean."
(12)  So when He had washed their feet, taken His garments, and sat down again, He said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you?  (13)  You call Me Teacher and Lord, and you say well, for so I am.  (14)  If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet.  (15)  For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you.  (16)  Most assuredly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him.  (17)  If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them."

He loved them:
The thought is brought into prominence by the repetition of the word  "world."
In the world the disciples were to find their trial,  and to find it when their Master had passed out of  the world. Hence came the necessity for such encouragements as follow.  In His knowledge of the disciples' suffering the Lord forgot His own suffering!

Supper being ended

The most approved reading is  "ginomenou,"  denoting  "while supper was in progress,"  Hence,  the Revised, PeshittaAmplified,  and others,  render this  "during supper."
It means that the preparations had been accomplished;  supper had been served,  and was now in progress.

Jesus...rose from supper

Jesus had painfully heard their murmured jealousies,  while they were arranging their places at the feast.
Not by mere verbal reproof alone but by an act more profoundly significant and touching,  He determined to teach to them,  and to all who love Him,  a nobler lesson.

Every Eastern room,  if  it belonged to any but the very poorest,  had the central part of the floor covered with mats,  and as a person entered,  he laid aside his sandals at the door of the room,  mainly in order not to defile the clean white mats with the dust and dirt of the road.

Before they reclined at the table,  the disciples had doubtless conformed to this cleanly and reasonable custom;  but another customary and pleasant habit,  which we know that Jesus appreciated,  had been neglected.
Their feet must have been covered with dust from their walk along the hot and much frequented road from Bethany to Jerusalem,  and under such circumstances they would have been refreshed for the festival by washing their feet after putting off their sandals.

And not only that,  but this being the Passover Feast,  there was not supposed to be any dust at all allowed in the house.

Not only were they eating with UNWASHED feet  
They were eating with DEFILED feet  

And Jesus had already told them  "a little leaven leavened the whole."
But to wash the feet was the work of slaves,  and they would not even stoop to wash their own feet,  let alone the feet of any of the others.

Since no one had offered to perform the kindly and lowly office,  Jesus Himself,  in His eternal humility and self-denial,  rose from His place at the meal to do the menial service which none of His disciples had offered to do for Him.

Well may the amazement of  the beloved disciple show itself  in his narrative,  as he dwells on every particular of  that solemn scene.

Laid aside His garments

Though  "He knew that the Father had given all things into His hands,"  in total of self-abnegation:

He entirely stripped His upper limbs,
laying aside both the  "simchah"  and the  "cetoneth,"  as though He had been the meanest slave,
and wrapping the towel around His waist.
Then pouring water into the large copper basin with which the house is always provided,
He began without a word to wash His disciples' feet,
and wipe them dry with the towel that served Him as a girdle.

And Peter said to Him

Awe and shame kept them silent until He came to Peter,  whose irrepressible emotions found vent in the surprised,  half-indignant question.

Our language cannot bring out the intensely vivid contrast between the  "You"  and the  "my,"  which,  by
bringing them together,  the original expresses  -

"Lord, YOU  MY feet dost wash?"

Thus far,  and in the question itself,  there was nothing but the most profound astonishment at the condescension,  to him quite incomprehensible.  Accordingly,  though there can be no doubt that already Peter's heart rebelled against it as a thing not to be tolerated,  Jesus ministers no rebuke as yet,  but only bids him wait a little,  and he should understand it all.

As we read the life of Christ in the Gospels,  we cannot help but notice how Peter often spoke impulsively out of  his ignorance and had to be corrected by Jesus.

(Matt 16:21-23) Peter opposed Jesus going to the cross
(Matt 17:1-8) Peter tried to manage our Lord's affairs at the Transfiguration
(John 6:66-71) Peter expressed the faith of  all the disciples without realizing that one of the number was a traitor.
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright (c) 1989 by SP Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.
The electronic library)

Peter did not understand what his Lord was doing;  but instead of waiting for an explanation,  he impulsively tried to tell the Lord what to do. There is a strong double negative in John 13:8.  The Greek scholar Kenneth Wuest translated Peter's statement:

"You shall by no means wash my feet no,  never!"
Peter really meant it!  Then when he discovered that to refuse the Lord would mean to lose the Lord's fellowship, he went in the opposite direction and asked for a complete bath!
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright (c) 1989 by SP Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.)

If I do not wash you

Jesus meets the confidence of the Apostle with a declaration of  the necessary separation that must ensue from the want of absolute submission.

Unless I render you this service
Unless you receive that which I offer
even when you can not understand My purpose
You have no part with Me!

The first condition of discipleship is  SELF-SURRENDER.

Not my feet only

Peter,  with characteristic impulsiveness,  still answers in the same spirit as before.

Just as he had wished to define what the Lord should not do,
So now he wishes to define the manner in which that should be done.

Peter  would extend in detail to every part the action that Christ designed to fulfill in one way according to His Own Will.

He who is bathed

He that is bathed - from "louo" - to bathe
Used of bathing a dead body;  a bathing of the whole body
To wash his feet - from "vipto" - to wash something
Used of washing one's hands, face, feet, etc

This basic truth of  Christian living is beautifully illustrated in the Old Testament priesthood.

(Ex 29:4) When the priest was consecrated, he was bathed all over
and that experience was never repeated.
(Ex 30:18-21) However, during his daily ministry,  he became defiled;
so it was necessary that he wash his hands and feet at the brass laver in the courtyard
  Only then could he enter the holy place and trim the lamps, eat the holy bread, or bum the incense.
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright (c) 1989 by SP Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.)

It takes humility and grace to serve others, but it also takes humility and grace to allow others to serve us.
The beautiful thing about a submissive spirit is that it can both give and receive to the glory of God.

Peter must have recalled this lesson on humility years later when he wrote 1 Peter 5:5-6.

1 Peter 5:5-7
Likewise you younger people,  submit yourselves to your elders.  Yes,  all of you be submissive to one another,  and be clothed with humility, for  "God resists the proud, But gives grace to the humble."
Therefore humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God,  that He may exalt you in due time, casting all your care upon Him,  for He cares for you.       (NKJV)


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Matthew 26:21-25
(21)  Now as they were eating, He said, "Assuredly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me."
(22)  And they were exceedingly sorrowful, and each of them began to say to Him, "Lord, is it I?"
(23)  He answered and said, "He who dipped his hand with Me in the dish will betray Me.  (24)  The Son of Man indeed goes just as it is written of Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born."
(25)  Then Judas, who was betraying Him, answered and said, "Rabbi, is it I?"
He said to him, "You have said it."

Mark 14:18-21
(18)  Now as they sat and ate, Jesus said, "Assuredly, I say to you, one of you who eats with Me will betray Me."
(19)  And they began to be sorrowful, and to say to Him one by one, "Is it I?" And another said, "Is it I?"
(20)  He answered and said to them, "It is one of the twelve, who dips with Me in the dish.  (21)  The Son of Man indeed goes just as it is written of Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had never been born."
Luke 22:21-23
(21)  "But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table.  (22)  And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!"
(23)  Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing.
John 13:21-30
(21)  When Jesus had said these things, He was troubled in spirit, and testified and said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me.
(22)  Then the disciples looked at one another, perplexed about whom He spoke.
(23)  Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved.  (24)  Simon Peter therefore motioned to him to ask who it was of whom He spoke.
(25)  Then, leaning back on Jesus' breast, he said to Him, "Lord, who is it?"
(26)  Jesus answered, "It is he to whom I shall give a piece of bread when I have dipped it." And having dipped the bread, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.  (27)  Now after the piece of bread, Satan entered him. Then Jesus said to him, "What you do, do quickly."  (28)  But no one at the table knew for what reason He said this to him.  (29)  For some thought, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus had said to him, "Buy those things we need for the feast," or that he should give something to the poor.
(30)  Having received the piece of bread, he then went out immediately. And it was night.

Dips with me

As the Jews ate the Passover a whole family together,  it was not convenient for them all to dip their bread in the same dish;   they therefore had several little dishes or plates,  in which was the juice of the bitter herbs,  on different parts of the table;  and those who were near one of these,  dipped their bread in it.

As Judas is represented as dipping in the same dish with Jesus,  it shows that he was either near or right beside Him in one of the most honored positions.

When men are completely hardened by the deceitfulness of  sin,  they can outwardly perform the most solemn acts of  devotion,  without feeling any sort of inward concern about the matter.

Judas ... said, Rabbi, is it I?

What excessive impudence!  He knew,  in his conscience,  that he had already betrayed his Master,  and was waiting now for the servants of  the chief priests,  that he might deliver Him into their hands;  and yet he says,  "Master, is it I?"

It is worthy of note,  that each of the other disciples said: Lord,  is it I?"
But Judas dares not,  or  WILL  not,  use this august title, but simply says Teacher,  is it I?

To whom I shall give a piece of bread when I have dipped it

The reply,  given in a tone equally low,  as was the question,  was heard by John alone,  and confirmed the suspicions that it is evident that the repellant nature of  Judas had already inspired him.

It was common for one at times to dip into the dish a piece of  the thin flexible cake of bread,  and to hand it to another guest.  So ordinary an incident of  any daily meal would attract no notice whatever.  Jesus handed to the traitor a  "sop"  of this kind,  and this,  as He told John,  was the sign that should indicate to him,  and possibly to Peter,  which was the guilty member of the little band.

Satan entered into him

We have here the most striking of contrasts between Judas and Jesus:

In Judas We find that in that dark heart Earth and Hell were thenceforth at one -
in that lost soul sin had conceived and brought forth death for himself and his Lord.
In Jesus We find that in that heart which was the Light of the world Earth and Heaven were at one -
in that righteous soul obedience had brought forth life eternal for all who would believe on Him.


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Matthew 26:26-29
(26)  And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, "Take, eat; this is My body."
(27)  Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you.  (28)  For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.  (29)  But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom."

Mark 14:22-25
(22)  And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to them and said, "Take, eat; this is My body."
(23)  Then He took the cup, and when He had given thanks He gave it to them, and they all drank from it.  (24)  And He said to them, "This is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many.  (25)  Assuredly, I say to you, I will no longer drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God."

Luke 22:19-20
(19)  And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me."
(20)  Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you."

1 Corinthians 11:23-26
(23)  For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you: that the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took bread;  (24)   and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, "Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me.
(25)  In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me."
(26)  For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes.

Jesus took bread

UNLEAVENED bread,  for this was the first day of  unleavened bread (Matthew 26: 17),  when the Jews,  according to the command of  God  (Exodus 12:15-20)  were to purge away all leaven from their houses;  for he who sacrificed the Passover,  having leaven in his dwelling,  was considered to be such a transgressor of  the Divine law as could no longer be tolerated among the people of God;  and therefore was to be cut off from the congregation of Israel.

To this divinely instituted custom of  removing all leaven previously to the paschal solemnity,  Paul evidently alludes. 1 Corinthians 5:6-8
Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump?  Therefore purge out the old leaven,  that you may be a new lump,  since you truly are unleavened.  For indeed Christ,  our Passover,  was sacrificed for us.  Therefore let us keep the feast,  not with old leaven,  nor with the leaven of  malice and wickedness,  but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.      (NKJV)

Bread,  simply considered in itself,  may be an emblem apt enough of the body of our Lord Jesus (as He said,  "I am the bread of life"),  which was given for us;  but the design of God was evidently that it should not only point out this,  but also the very

SINLESSNESS (devoid of all malice and wickedness)


SUBSTANCE (Sincerity and Truth)
of that body.

Blessed ... Gave thanks

Matthew and Mark use the word "eulogesas" - blessed God
Luke uses the word "eucharisesas" - giving thanks to God

After giving the bread, the discourse related in John 14:1-31 is supposed to have been delivered by Jesus, for the comfort and support of His disciples under their present and approaching trials.


Many translators have: Testament
The word for Testament is "diatheke,"  and may also be translated  "covenant,"  although the idea of  both

Testament (as in a will)
Covenant (an agreement between two)
are involved in "diatheke."

Jeremiah 31:31
"Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the House of Israel and with the house of Judah. ..."    (Amplified Bible)

Luke 22:20
"...This cup is the new testament or covenant (ratified) in My blood, which is shed (Poured out) for you."
(Amplified Bible)

Hebrews 8:10  (quoting from Jeremiah 31:33)
"For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of  Israel after those days,  says The Lord:  I will imprint My laws upon their minds, even upon their innermost thoughts and understanding,  and engrave them upon their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be My people."   (Amplified Bible)

Hebrews 12:24
And to Jesus, the Mediator (go-between, Agent) of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood which speaks [of mercy], a better and nobler and more gracious message than the blood of Abel [which cried out for vengeance].
(Amplified Bible)

No covenant was made without blood  (Exodus 24:8;  Hebrews 9:20),  and there can be no remission of sins without it  (Hebrews 9:22;  Leviticus 17: 11 ).

After this, Jesus resumes that discourse which is found in t he 15th, 16th, and 17th chapters of John.
After these words, they sang a hymn, and went out into the Mount of Olives.
(Matthew 26:30;   Mark 14:26;   Luke 22:39;   John 14:1)

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John 14:1-31
(1)  "Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe also in Me.  (2)  In My Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.  (3)  And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, there you may be also.  (4)  And where I go you know, and the way you know."
(5)  Thomas said to Him, "Lord, we do not know where You are going, and how can we know the way?"
(6)  Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.
(7) "If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; and from now on you know Him and have seen Him.
(8)  Philip said to Him, "Lord, show us the Father, and it is sufficient for us."
(9)  Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you say, 'Show us the Father'?  (10)  Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? The words that I speak to you I do not speak on My own authority; but the Father who dwells in Me does the works.  (11)  Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father in Me, or else believe Me for the sake of the works themselves.
(12)  "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works that I do he will do also; and greater works than these he will do, because I go to My Father.  (13)  And whatever you ask in My name, that I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.  (14)  If you ask anything in My name, I will do it.
(15)  If you love Me, keep My commandments.  (16)  And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever --  (17)  the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you.18 I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.
(19)  A little while longer and the world will see Me no more, but you will see Me. Because I live, you will live also.  (20)  At that day you will know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you.  (21)  He who has My commandments and keeps them, it is he who loves Me. And he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and manifest Myself to him."

(22)  Judas  (not Iscariot)  said to Him, "Lord, how is it that You will manifest Yourself to us, and not to the world?"
(23)   Jesus answered and said to him, "If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him.  (24)  He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father's who sent Me.
(25)  These things I have spoken to you while being present with you.  (26)  But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all things that I said to you.  (27)  Peace I leave with you, My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.  (28)  You have heard Me say to you, 'I am going away and coming back to you.' If you loved Me, you would rejoice because I said, 'I am going to the Father,' for My Father is greater than I.
(29)  And now I have told you before it comes, that when it does come to pass, you may believe.  (30)  I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming, and he has nothing in Me.  (31)  But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father gave Me commandment, so I do. Arise, let us go from here.

This conversation took place between the bread and "the cup"

It falls into three natural divisions,  marked by three questions:

1. (verse 5) By Thomas Lord, we do not know where You are going, and how can we know the way?
2. (verse 8) By Philip Lord, show us the Father and it is sufficient for us.
3. (verse 22) By Judas
(not Iscariot)
Lord, how is it that You will manifest Yourself to us, and not to the world?

By Thomas - How can we know the way?

Jesus had stated His departure;  this departure is to the Father's abode,  with a view to preparing a place for,  and then coming again,  to those who know the direction of the journey.  He said  " And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know."

But the disciples were not so sure - for Thomas said:  We don't know where You are going, and how can we know the way?

But they DID know the way,  for Jesus said:

"I am the way ..."

And He told them that:

"If ye had known Me,
ye should have known My Father also:
and from henceforth ye know Him,
and have seen Him."

By Philip - Show us the Father!

The disciples still were not so sure that they had all this knowledge - How can they know Him from henceforth,  and when have they seen Him?

Jesus answers this request with a question:

"Have I been with you so long,
and yet you have not known Me, Philip?"

By Judas - Lord, how is it that You will manifest Yourself to us?

Jesus had just told them that:

"The Father...will give you...the Spirit of truth,
whom the world cannot receive,
but you know Him."

Now in answer to this question, Jesus says:  "The Comforter,  which is the Holy Ghost,  whom the Father will send in my name,  He shall teach you all things,  and bring all things to your remembrance,  whatsoever I have said unto you."

And some of those things the Spirit would bring to their remembrance were included in this discourse that Jesus had just given:

1. (Vs.16,17) The Father would send the Spirit of  Truth   1. (Vs.6) Jesus had just said  "I am the way, THE TRUTH, and the life.
2. (Vs.17) Jesus said, "You know Him"   2. (Vs.17) Because HE DWELLS WITH YOU and will be in you.
3. (Vs.18) He said that He would not leave them comfortless.   3. (Vs.18) Because HE WOULD COME TO THEM

In short,  what Jesus was trying to tell them in answer to each of the three,  was that:

1. To know  CHRIST  is to know THE WAY
2. To know  CHRIST  is to know THE  TRUTH
3. To know  CHRIST  is to know THE  LIFE  (at its source)
4. To know  CHRIST  is to know THE  FATHER


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John 15:1-11
(1)  "I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser.  (2)  Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit He prunes, that it may bear more fruit.  (3)  You are already clean because of the word which I have spoken to you.  (4)  Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me.
(5)  "I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, bears much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing.  (6)  If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned.  (7)  If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, you will ask what you desire, and it shall be done for you.  (8)  By this My Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit; so you will be My disciples.
(9)  "As the Father loved Me, I also have loved you; abide in My love.  (10)  If you keep My commandments, you will abide in My love, just as I have kept My Father's commandments and abide in His love.
(11)  "These things I have spoken to you, that My joy may remain in you, and that your joy may be full.

To bear the fruit
From the life of  the vine
To bear the fruit
From  the life of  Christ
Cast out
Cast out
Purged (pruned)
In order to bear more fruit
Purged (sanctified)
In order to bear more fruit
Abiding in the vine
Abiding in Christ
Cast into the fire
And Burned
Cast into the fire
And Burned
Shall remain in the Vineyard
"So you will be My  Disciples"
To provide fruit
For the benefit of the Husbandman
To provide fruit
For the glory of the Father


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John 16:7-15
(7)   "Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I depart, I will send Him to you.  (8)  And when He has come, He will convict the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:  (9)  of sin, because they do not believe in Me;  (10)  of righteousness, because I go to My Father and you see Me no more;  (11)  of judgment, because the ruler of this world is judged.
(12)  "I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now.  (13)  However, when He, the Spirit of truth, has come, He will guide you into all truth; for He will not speak on His own authority, but whatever He hears He will speak; and He will tell you things to come.  (14)  He will glorify Me, for He will take of what is Mine and declare it to you.  (15)  All things that the Father has are Mine. Therefore I said that He will take of Mine and declare it to you.

This portion is an extension of His  "Parting Words," and the key verses are verses 12 & 13:

"Again,  I have many other things to tell you,  but you cannot grasp them now.  But when the Spirit of Truth is come,  he will guide you into all the truth;  for he will not speak from himself,  but what he hears he will speak;  and he will make known to you things which are to come in the future."
(Aramaic Peshitta)

Christ is

"The Way" by which we are led to
"The Truth," and He is the Truth,  by which we are led to
"The Life," and He is that Life.

The departure of  His physical body was necessary so that His Spirit could lead us to Himself.


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John 17:1-26
(1)   Jesus spoke these words, lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said: "Father, the hour has come. Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify You,  (2)  as You have given Him authority over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many as You have given Him.  (3)  And this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.  (4)  I have glorified You on the earth. I have finished the work which You have given Me to do.  (5)  And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was.
(6)   "I have manifested Your name to the men whom You have given Me out of the world. They were Yours, You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word.  (7)  Now they have known that all things which You have given Me are from You.  (8)  For I have given to them the words which You have given Me; and they have received them, and have known surely that I came forth from You; and they have believed that You sent Me.
(9)  "I pray for them. I do not pray for the world but for those whom You have given Me, for they are Yours.  (10)  And all Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them.  (11)  Now I am no longer in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to You. Holy Father, keep through Your name those whom You have given Me, that they may be one as We are.  (12)  While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Your name. Those whom You gave Me I have kept; and none of them is lost except the son of perdition, that the Scripture might be fulfilled.  (13)  But now I come to You, and these things I speak in the world, that they may have My joy fulfilled in themselves.  (14)  I have given them Your word; and the world has hated them because they are not of the world, just as I am not of the world.  (15)  I do not pray that You should take them out of the world, but that You should keep them from the evil one.  (16)  They are not of the world, just as I am not of the world.  (17)  Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is truth.  (18)  As You sent Me into the world, I also have sent them into the world.  (19)  And for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also may be sanctified by the truth.
(20)  "I do not pray for these alone, but also for those who will believe in Me through their word;  (21)  that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in You; that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that You sent Me.  (22)  And the glory which You gave Me I have given them, that they may be one just as We are one:  (23)  I in them, and You in Me; that they may be made perfect in one, and that the world may know that You have sent Me, and have loved them as You have loved Me.
(24)  "Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world.  (25)  O righteous Father! The world has not known You, but I have known You; and these have known that You sent Me.  (26)  And I have declared to them Your name, and will declare it, that the love with which You loved Me may be in them, and I in them.

This is Jesus fulfilling the office of  High Priest.
The Jewish High Priest,  on the great day of expiation,  before offering up the grand atonement for the sins of the people:

(1) Washed himself and put on clean linen garments
This Jesus has done (chap.13:4).
He laid aside His garments,
Girded Himself with a towel, and washed the disciples' feet.
There is no room to doubt that He and His disciples had been at the bath before (chap.13:10).
(2) Addressed a solemn prayer to God
A. For Himself This Jesus does in verses 1-8.
    The emphasis is on the Glory of the Son, with the purpose of glorifying the Father. (Verses 1 & 5)
    Jesus says that He has:
1. Glorified His Father on the earth
2. Finished the work that His Father gave to Him
3. Manifested the name of His Father to men
4. Gave unto men the words His Father gave Him
B. For the sons of Aaron In verse 9 Jesus says, "I pray for them...whom you have given me..."
- a prayer for His disciples - verses 9-19.
    He asks that:
1. They might be as one, even as He and His Father
2. They might have His joy fulfilled in them
3. They might be kept from the evil of the world
4. They might be sanctified through His truth
C. For all the people Jesus does this in praying for all who should believe on Him in the future - verses 20-26.
The emphasis here is On Unity.
    He asks that:
1. We may be one even as He and His Father are one
2. We may be made perfect in one (or unity)
3. We may be where He is  (Eph.1:20-232:5-7)
4. We may behold His glory
5. We may have His love within us

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Matthew 26:31-35
(31)  Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written:  'I will strike the Shepherd,  and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.'
(32)  But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee.
(33)  Peter answered and said to Him, "Even if all are made to stumble because of You, I will never be made to stumble."
(34)  Jesus said to him, "Assuredly, I say to you that this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times."
(35)  Peter said to Him, "Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You!"
And so said all the disciples.

Mark 14:27-31
(27)  Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written:  'I will strike the Shepherd,  and the sheep will be scattered.'
(28)  "But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee.
(29)  Peter said to Him, "Even if all are made to stumble, yet I will not be."
(30)  Jesus said to him, "Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times."
(31)  But he spoke more vehemently, "If I have to die with You, I will not deny You!"
And they all said likewise.
Luke 22:31-34
(31)  And the Lord said, "Simon, Simon! Indeed, Satan has asked for you, that he may sift you as wheat.  (32)  But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren."
(33)  But he said to Him, "Lord, I am ready to go with You, both to prison and to death."
(34)  Then He said, "I tell you, Peter, the rooster shall not crow this day before you will deny three times that you know Me."
(35)  And He said to them, "When I sent you without money bag, knapsack, and sandals, did you lack anything?"
So they said, "Nothing."
(36)  Then He said to them, "But now, he who has a money bag, let him take it, and likewise a knapsack; and he who has no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one.  (37)  For I say to you that this which is written must still be accomplished in Me: 'And He was numbered with the transgressors.' For the things concerning Me have an end."
(38)  So they said, "Lord, look, here are two swords."
And He said to them, "It is enough."
John 13:36-38
(36)  Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, where are You going?"
Jesus answered him, "Where I am going you cannot follow Me now, but you shall follow Me afterward."
(37)  Peter said to Him, "Lord, why can I not follow You now? I will lay down my life for Your sake."
(38)  Jesus answered him, "Will you lay down your life for My sake? Most assuredly, I say to you, the rooster shall not crow till you have denied Me three times."

It is interesting that this word of warning followed the dispute over who was the greatest!

Satan has asked for you

The word "you"  in Luke 22:31 is plural - Satan asked to have all the disciples so he might sift them like wheat.
Not only Peter - not only the 12 - but all believers.

Job 1:6-12

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came among them.  And the LORD said to Satan,  "From where do you come?"
So Satan answered the LORD and said, "From going to and fro on the earth, and from walking back and forth on it."
Then the LORD said to Satan,  "Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God and shuns evil?"
So Satan answered the LORD and said, "Does Job fear God for nothing? Have You not made a hedge around him, around his household, and around all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land.  But now, stretch out Your hand and touch all that he has, and he will surely curse You to Your face!"
And the LORD said to Satan, "Behold, all that he has is in your power; only do not lay a hand on his person."

But I have prayed for you

These men had been with Jesus in His trials, and He would not forsake them in their trials.
This was both a warning and an encouragement.

Peter's self-confident boasting is a warning to us that none of us really knows his own heart  (Jeremiah 17:9)  and that we can fail in the point of our greatest strength.

(Gen 12:10-13:4) Abraham Great Strength Abraham's greatest strength was his faith,
and yet his faith failed him when he went down to Egypt and lied about Sarah.
(Num 12:3) Moses Great Meekness Moses' strength was in his meekness
yet he lost his temper,  spoke rashly with his lips,  and was not allowed to enter Canaan.
(Matt 26:69-75) Peter Great Courage Peter was a brave man,
but his courage failed him and he denied his Lord three times.

The failure comes when we depend on OUR faith, OUR strength, OUR courage,  OUR abilities.

Jeremiah 17:9
The heart is deceitful above all things,  and desperately wicked;  who can know it?       (NKJV)

1st Corinthians 10:12-13
Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall.  No temptation has overtaken you except such as is common to man;  but God is faithful,  who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able,  but with the temptation will also make the way of escape,  that you may be able to bear it.       (NKJV)

Rev 12:10-12
Then I heard a loud voice saying in heaven,  "Now salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our God day and night, has been cast down.  And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, and they did not love their lives to the death.  Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea! For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time."       (NKJV)


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Matthew 26:36-46
(36)  Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane, and said to the disciples, "Sit here while I go and pray over there."  (37)  And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and He began to be sorrowful and deeply distressed.  (38)  Then He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me."
(39)  He went a little farther and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, "O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as You will."
(40)  Then He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, "What! Could you not watch with Me one hour?  (41)  Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak."
(42)  Again, a second time, He went away and prayed, saying, "O My Father, if this cup cannot pass away from Me unless I drink it, Your will be done."
(43)  And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy.
(44)  So He left them, went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words.  (45)  Then He came to His disciples and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and resting? Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.  (46)  Rise, let us be going. See, My betrayer is at hand."
Mark 14:32-42
(32)  Then they came to a place which was named Gethsemane; and He said to His disciples, "Sit here while I pray."  (33)  And He took Peter, James, and John with Him, and He began to be troubled and deeply distressed.  (34)  Then He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch."
(35)  He went a little farther, and fell on the ground, and prayed that if it were possible, the hour might pass from Him.  (36)  And He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible for You. Take this cup away from Me; nevertheless, not what I will, but what You will."
(37)  Then He came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you sleeping? Could you not watch one hour?  (38)  Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak."
(39)  Again He went away and prayed, and spoke the same words.  (40)  And when He returned, He found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy; and they did not know what to answer Him.
(41)  Then He came the third time and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and resting? It is enough! The hour has come; behold, the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.  (42)  Rise, let us be going. See, My betrayer is at hand."
Luke 22:39-46
(39)  Coming out, He went to the Mount of Olives, as He was accustomed, and His disciples also followed Him.  (40)  When He came to the place, He said to them, "Pray that you may not enter into temptation."
(41)  And He was withdrawn from them about a stone's throw, and He knelt down and prayed,  (42)  saying, "Father, if it is Your will, take this cup away from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done."  (43)  Then an angel appeared to Him from heaven, strengthening Him.  (44)  And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly. Then His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
(45)  When He rose up from prayer, and had come to His disciples, He found them sleeping from sorrow.  (46)  Then He said to them, "Why do you sleep? Rise and pray, lest you enter into temptation."

To a place called Gethsemane

They came to Gethsemane,  which is about half a mile from the city walls.
It was a garden or orchard marked probably by some slight enclosure;  and as it had been a place of  frequent resort for Jesus and His followers,  we may assume that it belonged to some friendly owner.

The name Gethsemane means "the oil-press," and it was so called from a press to crush the olives yielded by the countless trees from which the hill derives its designation.

Although the exact spot cannot be determined with certainty, the general position of Gethsemane is clear,  and then as now the checkering moonlight,  the gray leaves,  the dark brown trunks  (There are 8 aged olive trees here, which some suppose to have been standing on that evening. However, if Josephus is right, when he says that the Romans left no tree standing, then these 8 trees, though very ancient indeed, were not there then); the ravine
with Olivet towering over it to the eastward and Jerusalem to the west,  must have been the main external
features of a place that must be regarded with undying interest as the place where the Savior of mankind entered alone into the Valley of the Shadow.

He took Peter, James, and John

This is the third,  and final,  time these three are spoken of as exclusive of the rest.

(Mark 5) The first was at the raising of Jairus' daughter
(Matthew 17) The second was at the Transfiguration
Peter It was well that Peter should face all that was involved in allegiance to Christ,  as he had been the one to insist in his allegiance to Jesus,  in the face of death itself,  though all the others would forsake Him.
James and John It was well that James and John should know what was that cup which they had desired pre-eminently to drink, and that they had claimed that they would drink.


From "ekthambeo" - to throw into amazement or terror,  to alarm thoroughly,  to terrify,  to be struck with terror.

Deeply distressed

From "perilupos" - encompassed with grief.

Swete says:
"The Lord was overwhelmed with sorrow,  but His first feeling was one of terrified surprise.
Long as He had foreseen the Passion,  when it came clearly into view,  its terrors exceeded His Anticipations.
His human soul received a new experience.  With this there came another,  that of overpowering mental distress -the confused,  restless,  half-distracted state which follows a great shock."

Fell on the ground

The verb is imperfect,  speaking of  the fact that He did it repeatedly.
Showing the desperateness of the struggle in which Jesus was engaged at the time.

Matthew says that He  "fell on His face."
This was the customary position of a supplicant when the favor was great which was asked,  and deep humiliation was required.
The head was put between the knees,  and the forehead brought to touch the earth.

"Prayed" is also in the imperfect tense - "kept on praying."

This cup

The word  "cup"  is frequently used in the Sacred Writings to point out sorrow,  anguish,  terror,  and death.
It seems to be an allusion to a very ancient method of punishing criminals.
A cup of poison was put into their hands, and they were obliged to drink it.

To death,  by the poisoned cup - there seems to be an allusion in Hebrews 2:9
"Jesus Christ,  by the grace of God,  TASTED  death for every man."

Pass from me

Perhaps there is an allusion here to several criminals standing in a row,  who are all to drink of the same cup;  but the judge extending favor to a certain one,  the CUP PASSES BY HIM to the next.

Nevertheless not as I will

In the Greek text it is: ego thelo -"I,  I will" -
The total submerging of that personal desire (ego) to the will of  His Father.

This is Jesus fulfilling the sacrifice of the Burnt Offering

The offering was to be made VOLUNTARILY at the door of the tabernacle.
And here we see that Jesus was not FORCED to submit,  but of His own free will He submitted.

The Burnt offering embodies the idea of  the submission of  the Human will to the will of  God in its most perfect form as the entire animal was placed upon the Altar to be burned.

It is the TOTAL COMMITMENT of the man.

He came the third time

Swete has the following:

The time for watchfulness and prayer has gone by, and the injunction is not repeated:   in place of it comes a permission to sleep.  The permission is sure ironical;  "sleep then, since it is your will to do so;  rest, if you can;"  the Lord did not hesitate to use irony when there was occasion for it;  exhortation and reproof  had in this instance failed, and no other means of  rousing the three to a sense of duty remained  ... His irony had produced the desired effect,  and the Apostles are roused,  and He at once reverts to His customary  tone of serious direction.

It is enough

Again, Swete says:
"The Lord breaks off  the momentary play of irony - it is as if He would say, 'this time for a lengthened exposure of the faults of friends; the enemy is at the gate.'"

All the disciples claimed great things
They did not want to pray
They just wanted to do great things!


(End of Lesson Twenty Two)



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